Convert and many other functions. A smart

an Unsmart Home into a Smart Home

Avadhkumar Madhubhai

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Student, San Jose State University

[email protected]




smart home (sometimes referred to as a smart house or eHome) is one that has
highly advanced automatic system for controlling lighting and temperature, multi
media equipment for monitoring and activating security apparatus (alarms and alerts)
associated with windows and doors and many other functions. A smart home
behaves “intelligent” because its computer systems can monitor many aspects
of day to day life. My research in this paper, is based on a universal
implementation model for the smart home. The “Home Intelligence” (HI) module of
the smart home, offers vital added-value to the intelligent behavior of the smart-home
environment. The HI makes a coordinated situation in which the Artificial
Intelligence (AI) component can induce and appropriately respond as indicated
by changing conditions and occasions. By distinguishing abnormal or surprising
events and, when necessary alerting the home’s occupants, the AI module can
give a prompt programmed reaction if wanted. Because the systems are very
complex, their different areas of control and supervision, the assortment of
information technologies and learning mechanisms, and the thinking capabilities
used in refreshing the information system, developers, suppliers and clients
must collaborate. Collaboration will be communicated by consenting to secretly
exchange data from the customer to the designer through the providers. The
exchanged data will incorporate qualities of irregular occasions, which have
really happened truly (genuine life situations), and the reactions of the smart
home. This
data is then broke down and utilized for AI learning and to enhance the
framework’s thinking systems. Gathering data from an extensive number of
customers will take into consideration quicker learning and refreshing of the
home intelligence system. A reproduction framework was produced with a specific
end goal to show the HI module. The reproduction outlines the learning and the
thinking forms and in addition exhibits the smart home’s reactions to irregular
occasions. With help of standardization we can do it economically. 




smart home (sometimes called as a smart house or eHome) is one that has very
propelled programmed system for controlling lighting and temperature,
multi-media gear for checking and initiating security device (alerts and
alarms) related with windows and doors and numerous different capacities. A smart
home seems “wise” since its computer system can screen numerous parts
of day by day life. For instance, the refrigerator might have the capacity to
stock its own particular substance, propose menus, prescribe solid options, and
request goods.



smart home frameworks may even deal with cleaning the cat’s litter box and
watering the plants. The possibility of a brilliant home now and again appears
to be something from Hollywood. To be sure, a 1999 film Smart House exhibits
the humorous jokes of an American family that wins a “house of future”,
finish with an android servant who wreaks destruction. Different movies
demonstrate a scientific vision of smart home innovation that, generally,
appears to be fairly doubtful. Be that as it may, smart home innovation is
genuine and is ending up progressively modern and today coded signals are being
sent through the home’s wiring to switches and outlets modified to work
machines and electronic gadgets in all aspects of the house. What’s more,
progressively home mechanization is turned out to be particularly helpful for elderly
and incapacitated people who wish to live freely.







Security in Smart Home

      David Bregman and Arik Korman in their
research paper “A Universal Implementation Model for the Smart Home” says that,
smart home condition is quickly turning into a reality. Be that as it may, the
absence of universal model outcomes in merchants creating items, in view of
self-characterized principles. Coordination of gadgets and user interface
created by different makers is practically unthinkable. So for realization of
smart home an universal model is basic need 1.

      David Bregman in his paper “Smart Home
Intelligence – The eHome that learns” mentioned that the HI makes and
coordinated condition in which the Artificial Intelligence (AI) can surmise and
reasonably respond as per changing conditions and occasions. By distinguishing
irregular or abnormal events and, when essential alarming the home’s inhabitants,
the AI module can give a prompt programmed reaction if wanted. Author conclude
that collaboration of transfer information from customers to developer through
the suppliers will help to upgrade the system’s mechanisms 2.

Gunn, James Barlow and Tim Venables in their paper “Digital Futures: Making
Homes Smarter” suggest to implement CEBus – The Consumer Electronics Bus was
produced by the US Electronic Industries Association for residential
applications, and is specified in the standard EIA-60013. CEBus provides an
unique language for home automation functions, and uses a programmed signaling
method devised by the CEBus committee that operates at 6.7 kbit/s. Data
transmission can be over power-lines, coaxial cable, twisted pair, infra-red or
radio. Since, CEBus supply special language for home automation, our smart home
will be more secured and safe.

      Smart Home security system performs better to prevent
intrusions and home invasions in comparison of security systems that require
manual settings. This system also provides warning system if anything wrong
found. Warning alarms notify residents as soon as possible. Many owners
connects their warning system with their city’s warning system to get advance
warning alert during any natural disaster. Fire alarm can be connect to unlock
door and alert the local fire department 10.

Raisul Alam, Mamun Bin lbne Reaz and Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali in their paper “A
Review of Smart Homes-Past, Present and Future” says that smart homes are
helpless against security dangers. Most security issues are identified with
feeble client and gadget validation plans 6. Security assaults might be
produced locally or remotely. From this review, clearly most security systems
are embraced from existing methods of computer security. Pishva et al. proposed
a product based security model for smart home machines 7.


Inconsistency in Smart Home

we are converting our old home into smart home there will be some problem which
will make our smart home inconsistence like problem with radio range as the
Wi-Fi doesn’t reach all the way down to the end of the house, because the thick
stone walls in old houses are absorbing the signal. We need to put things on
wall in older home because we are retrofitting. In old home room’s temperature
varies because it was built in traditional way with old technologies so David
Bregman and Arik Korman in their paper “A Universal Implementation Model for
the Smart Home” suggest to adopt few standard modules to make our smart home
more consistence. The suggested smart-home architecture consists of four
modules like Central Management Unit (CMU), User Interface (UI), Home Equipment
and Appliances Interface, External Communication Interface. This four module
will make our home more consistence 1. Another issue with associated homes in
general are the sheer number of smart home stages and technologies. There’s
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WeMo, Zigbee, Z-Wave, and a host of others. Not every
platform talks to each and every one, and many aren’t even compatible with
others, generating more problem 9.


The Technology is Moody

any new technologies, connected home systems can sometimes have a mind of their

One peculiarity that drives a lot of smart home
client’s nuts is the absence of what is called “local control”. In
2 author conclude that collaboration of diverted information from customer to
the developer through the suppliers will help to make system’s mechanisms
better. The diverted information consists of characteristics of abnormal events
that have actually occurred in reality and the responses of the smart home.
This Information can then be analyzed and used for AI learning and to improve
the system’s reasoning mechanisms.


The Price is too high

      If someone claims that smart home is too
expensive than
it is wrong. It is partially true only. We can spend as little or as much money
as we want. It depends on someone’s requirements and budget. The central hub
itself is not as much costly. The issue is it can be expensive quickly. David
Gann, James Barlow and Tim Benables in their paper “Digital Futures: Making
Homes Smarter” says that, In general, the costs estimated around £1400 per
room. They are certainly higher than it should be for common mana, which was
our target to prove affordability. Costs are high in part because a wide range
of equipment was installed which would normally be in excess of individual
needs. But individual items such as light switches are also expensive when we
are looking for standard, non-digital components. These costs are high in part
because it is not popular so there is no volume market in which economies of
scale come into play. Many components and systems were produced and sold for
use in commercial offices, where volume of sales could be more so it will
provide bulk purchase cost reductions and multiple devices could be controlled
as the same way. Moreover, the savings made in large buildings are likely to
provide a pay-back in areas such as energy saving, whereas these issues need
further experiment and findings in the housing area 3.

universal model proposed by David Bregman and Arik Korman (2009) in their
research paper “A Universal Implementation Model for the Smart Home”. The
Proposed universal model will help to improve principles like standardization,
Usage expansion and Compliance with existing infrastructure and communication
standards 1. And due to improvement in these principles standardization will
help to reduce the overall cost.


3. THE


Research suggest me to use universal model

For the smart home.

The suggested
smart-home universal implemented model has four modules (Figure 3):

Management Unit (CMU)

Interface (UI)

Equipment and Appliances Interface (HEAI)

Communication Interface (ECI)




3.1 Central Management Unit (CMU)

      The CMU is heart of smart home. All
devices connected to it by either wireless or wired connections. CMU monitors, operate
and control all devices and equipment by checking status and giving commands.

      The CMU using applications,
software-services and equipment and collecting lots of data base with help of
information technology. With
artificial Intelligence (AI) components, the CMU can manage smart and emergency


3.2 User Interface (UI)

      UI provides access for users
to all devices and appliances which are connected to smart home. User can
select a device, can see status and menu of commands. Equipment may be
connected with a selected group of activities, such as lighting, entertainment,
security, etc., location or any combination of group and location. Access to a
particular gadget is liable to approval and the UI’s capacity to control its


3.3 Home Appliance

       It is an electrical or mechanical
machines which will work with some household functions, such as cooling,
heating, cleaning etc. It can be divided into three classifications:




      It will make resident’s life safer and
comfortable at home.


3.4 External Communication Interface

      Connection with atmosphere, weather and
any other outer situation comes in this category. Temperature inside the room
changes as per weather condition outside. This happens only because of external
communication Interface.


3.5 CMU Components




3.5.1 Operating
System (SHOS – Smart Home Operating System):

      The CMU is reason behind
continuous operation and control of all connected smart home devices. It monitors device’s
status, sending and receiving commands and calls, recording events in the
database, and so on continuously. The SHOS finds any suitable devices and
settle it in smart home’s environment and then use it as per requirements.


3.5.2 The Smart-Home Database:

      The database is main storage
of all information data of smart home environment. All devices connected to
this and data of those devices transferred and stored in database.





3.5.3 AI
(Artificial Intelligence) Engine:

      Artificial Intelligence is a
branch of computer science in which creation of intelligent machine takes place
which will work and react like humans. It will respond early to any emergency
situation smartly according to conditions and environment of smart home and its
users. The
AI engine mechanism reacts according to changing conditions, reflecting
suitable responses to different situations.


3.5.4 Application Services:

      The application services will allows the
smart home to make changes for the easy and rapid use of operating system of
smart home. For Example, programming garden watering is much easier than handle
bundles of software.




ecobee3 Smarter WiFi Thermostat

      The Nest Learning Thermostat is the face
of smart home technology for most, but depending on what your home is like,
it’s not blasphemous to say the ecobee3 is superior.

      It is capable of learning your
preferences and schedule, then adjusting the temperature accordingly. It is
better looking and more enjoyable to use than the basic pieces of plastic that
occupy most households. And once you’re able to heat up or cool down your house
from your phone, without having to get out of bed, you won’t want to go back.
It can cost around $250.





Nest Protect

      The connected smoke and carbon monoxide
detector looks nicer than the gray plastic chunk on your ceiling, for one, but
it also does its job well, gauging potential dangers, then loudly alerting you
if there’s a problem. If you’re not home when something goes awry, it’ll send
alerts to your phone. (And probably cause a few panic attacks in process).



      A handy “Pathlight” feature gives you a
light if the Protect senses you walking around in the dark, too. And if you
ever get a little too sloppy cooking dinner, you can turn off any non-emergency
alarms right from the Nest app, rather than disconnecting the whole thing out
of frustration. It cost around $100.


Amazon Echo

      The Amazon Echo is technically a
Bluetooth speaker, but you wouldn’t buy one just to play music. Instead, it
best serves as a Siri or Google Now for your home, a digital assistant that can
tell you the weather, crawl the Web for random info, fire up some music, set
alarms or calendar events, adjust a growing number of other smart home devices,
and more, all upon your request.




      Amazon’s done a stellar job of updating
and improving the Echo since it launched late last year, and the whole thing is
simple to use and operate. Like most of the devices on the list, it’s also
something to gawk at. It might bring us closer to a Her-style existence, but as
a friendly, hands free bridge to the Internet, the Echo is nice to have around.
It cost about $180.  


Nest Cam

      It puts out a wide-angle, 1080p stream
that you

can watch from your
phone — not a replacement for a full-on home security system, but useful if
you’ve got a child that needs monitoring. It’ll send you alerts if it senses
something suspicious — though that’s limited to one every half-hour — and you
can also stash and access past footage through the cloud. It cost around $190.




Logitech Harmony Home Control

      Logitech has been the only real presence
in the land of universal remotes for a long time now, and its Harmony Home
Control is the best value it offers for anyone with a few smart home devices.
The included Harmony Companion remote can connect to things like the
aforementioned Nest thermostat, Philips Hue lights, or Sonos speakers, in
addition to the usual suite of TVs, media streamers, cable boxes, game
consoles, and so on.




      Using it isn’t constantly seamless, but
for something that’s controlling up to 8 things at once, it’s far from unruly.
It also ditches the IR blaster in favor of an RF signal, which means you don’t
have to point it directly at what you want to control in order for it to work.
It cost about $40.

      There are lots of devices available in
market which will be helpful to make our home smarter. These are some examples
from those devices. These are most useful devices now a days in home.



      The smart home environment quickly
turning into a reality. However, there is lack of universal model or standards
so vendors have to do production with self-defined standards. Incorporation of
gadgets and User Interfaces created by different makers is practically
outlandish. Keeping in mind the end goal to advance the development of a smart
home condition, a general model is fundamental need.

      The suggested model emphasizes the
following principles:



      By using universal standards and
introducing new devices we can increase production rate so production cost will
be decrease automatically and also we can get higher production quality.
Mass-production of components can be come into picture.


Usage Expansion

      Universal model allows us to do usage
expansion of devices. We can use one device for more than one purposes. For
example video equipment can be used for entertainment, Medical monitoring,
security purposes etc. As much as devices and user interfaces contains
universal standards future expansion of usage of devices can be improved.


Compliance with
existing infrastructure and communication standards

      The proposed universal model is based on
existing structure and communication standards allows easy installation of
equipment in any house. Intra-home connectivity is another advantage of using
existing structure. Usage of smart home environment can be expand by connecting
houses, sharing information and understanding potential of smart home
appliances and user interfaces, beyond the boundaries of individual homes.  


      These three principles will help to
reduce converting cost of home into smart home. Also old age group will get
lost of benefits by using this standardize smart home conditions. By adopting
this universal model for smart home people will fulfill their needs and




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International Journal of Smart Home, Vol.3, No.3, July 2009.

Bregman. Smart Home Intelligence – The eHome that Learns, International Journal
of Smart Home, Vol.4, No.4, October, 2010.

David, James Barlow and Tim Venables. Digital Futures: Making Homes Smarter.
Coventry: The Chartered Institute of Housing, 1999.

R., Mamun Bin Ibne R. and Mohd Alauddin M., A Review of Smart Homes – Past,
Present, and Future, IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics Part C,
November 2012.

Bounegru. Smart Houses: From Managing the House at a Distance to the Management
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Proc. of 40th Annual IEEE Int. Carnahan Conf. Security Technology, 2006.

Pishva, K. Takeda, “Product Based Security Model for Smart Home Appliances”,
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International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
(PIMRC’07), 2007, Paper id 344.

“Benefits of a Smart Home”

Oswald, Feb. 2016, “Smart Homes: 4 Potential Problems You May Run Into”