Every twelvemonth one million millions of egg-type cockerels are produced in the universe. The associated genteelness industry has become comfortable for egg-type cockerels in footings of meat spirits compared to fast-growing-type broilers. Many researches have been carried out to measure the nutritionary demands of broilers ; conversely, small research has been performed on the nutritionary factors of egg-type cockerels. At present, most diets formulated are wasteful for the manufacturers of cockerels. Wang C. et Al, 2005.
The desire of every domestic fowl husbandman is to bring forth big measure of meat and eggs throughout the twelvemonth irrespective of the environmental conditions. ( Eilkheir S. , Ahmed M. , Gadir A. , 2008 ) which explains why the production of puting cockerels is non given much importance. In Mauritius, the production of domestic fowl grew by 4.8 % in 2009 to make 44,000 metric tons compared to 42,000 metric tons in the twelvemonth 2008. ( CSO, 2009 – 2010 ) The domestic fowl industry has prospered due to an addition in buying power of Mauritians. This has resulted in the development of the domestic fowl sector as an incorporate industry with the private companies being involved from provender readying to selling of the domestic fowl merchandises through production of twenty-four hours old biddies. ( FAO, Country Report, 2007 ) . In the other manus, there has n’t been much research on growing of bed cockerels because of their slow growing rate compared to the fast growth broilers.
To fulfill the higher demand for meat merchandises on clip, farm animal production and densenesss of birds per square meter have significantly gone high, frequently close to urban Centres. Industrial carnal production has become more focussed, utilizing fewer farm animal strains who turn out to be more productive.
Harmonizing to FAO Chief Veterinary Officer Joseph Domenech those developments have potentially serious effects for local and planetary disease hazards, which by now, have non been recognised by policy shapers. As a consequence, the huge bulk of poulets are now produced in houses with 15 000 to 50 000 birds in the industrialised states. The tendency towards industrialisation of farm animal production can besides be seen in developing states, where traditional systems are being replaced by intensive units, largely in Asia, South America and parts of Africa ( FAO, 2008 ) . And therefore, backyard domestic fowl is diminishing together with autochthonal poulet and cockerel production.
2.0 Literature Review
Cockerel coming from the word prick is known as a immature prick non holding an age older than one twelvemonth. Cocks are besides known as combatants without clemency since centuries. They can copulate with 5-6 biddies at a clip and one prick or cockerel can remain with a household of five to six female birds. Cocks can non accept another prick in their household, so they fight until one survives and takes ownership of the household. So these accomplishments of contending start developing in early phases of the cockerels. Cockerels besides like to be in higher places from the dirt, and therefore they are seen on high trees. ( Danae Olivier, 1990 )
Cockerels the egg-type male biddies ‘ production is an indispensable constituent of household domestic fowl development with the increasing tendencies of commercial bed farming. The bed husbandmans normally buy female biddies from the hatchery and a important figure of male biddies remains in the hatchery and are sold at a low monetary value or destroyed since there is small or no installation to market these biddies. Cockerels can be grown as a beginning of meat as most consumers prefer cockerels as a beginning of domestic fowl meat because of its hardness. ( Huque Q. M. E. et Al, 2004 )
Cockerels from strains of puting biddies take long period to turn. Despite this, cockerels are present in high figure in developing states where the handiness and monetary value of twenty-four hours old biddies are often restraints. The efficient supply of the carnal class is really low in research activities. On the other manus, domestic fowl feed represents 60 to 80 % of the cost of inputs in commercial domestic fowl production ( Branckaert et al 2000 ) .
2.1.1 Fate of cockerels
Domestic poulets produce eggs which hatch giving about equal proportions of males and females. Long clip ago, domestic poulets were bred for both egg and meat production. On the contrary, today, commercial loanblend poulets are selected for one intent merely ; either eggs or meat. Surplus day-old male biddies of the bed type are presently without important commercial value and are at best used as nutrient for e.g.carnivorous animate beings. All efforts to raise male biddies of the bed type for meat production have resulted in high ingestion of provender and hapless meat output which is hard to market at competitory monetary values. ( Kaleta E. F. and Redmann T. , 2008 ) . Due to the inefficiency in bring forthing meat in a short clip, they are culled on the first twenty-four hours.
2.1.2 Cockerels as a beginning of domestic fowl meat
Normally cockerels are largely reared in backyard system and small town domestic fowl production. It is a beginning of income to adult females in small towns, every bit good as it contributes to the nutrient security in small towns. In some topographic points cockerels are besides used as a swap system alternatively of money.
2.2 Broiler Industry
In order to bring forth a kg of broiler meat, 1.8 kilogram provender is required ( Akbay, 1995 ) and broilers are one of the most efficient convertors of grains to animal protein.
Growth of broilers at the beginning requires investings in important sums in the signifier of broiler houses and purchasing and storage of provender ( Knoeber and Thurman, 1995 ) .Broilers are genetically selected, so slaughtered when merely 6 or 7 hebdomads ( a healthy poulet ‘s lifetime is as many old ages ) and ne’er see maternal attention. Mass-produced poulets spend their short lives in immense windowless sheds and since they are motherless they have to fend themselves since twenty-four hours old ( Webster J. , n.d. ) . Meat poulets today can make a weight of about 2kg in 35 yearss while devouring merely 3.2kg of provender. With familial choice there are still betterments in public presentation and the clip it takes to make market weight is bit by bit going shorter ( Choct M. , 2010 ) .
Producing animate beings / Slaughtered
( ten 1000 caputs )
Production ( T )
Beginning: Muthoor J. , 2010
2.3 Egg industry
2.3.1 Trend of commercial egg production
Compared to the broilers, the egg beds take much more clip to turn. They can hold a lifetime of up to 2 old ages.
Figure: Tendencies in egg production in the universe
Beginning: Evans T. , 2011
Figure: figure of eggs produced per 1000000s in Mauritius
Beginning: CSO 2005-2010
The tendencies in Mauritius shows that, egg production has been diminishing significantly since 2006, though there have been improved strains of egg beds, with increasing rate of puting eggs every twelvemonth.
2.4 Feeding Difference for broilers
Recently, there has been an unexpected and high demand of certain elements in the eating of domestic fowl, due to the success of the research scientists in bring forthing birds with enhanced productiveness in every manner, which overcomes the normal nutritionary demands of broilers. ( David Sainsbury, 2000 )
Figure: growing rate forms of cockerels with clip
Beginning: Huque Q. M. E et Al, 2004
2.5 Cockerel production direction compared to broiler production direction
There is no recognized cockerel direction usher boulder clay day of the month, for profitable cockerel raising and production system. Even so husbandmans begin cockerel husbandry with great involvement for consumer ‘s pick, lower direction cost, more organoleptic penchant and easy direction patterns. Many consumers prefer the meat of the male biddies at a organic structure weight of 600g to 700g and therefore there is a better program for the use of the huge measures of male biddies ( Huque Q. M. E. et Al, 2004 ) .
Figure: Major restraints for cockerel production
Beginning: Kperegbeyi J. I. et al. , 2009
2.6 Cockerel public presentation compared to broiler public presentation
2.6.1 Feed efficiency and growing rate
The growing rate is linked chiefly to familial factors, where the look depends on environmental characteristics ( Gerken et al. , 2003 ) .
2.7 Market demand and consumer pick of penchant for cockerel compared to broiler
2.7.1 Monetary value
2.7.2 Meat quality
The meat quality of cockerels is considered to be hardier than the broiler meat. The gustatory sensation, spirit, succulence and tenderness are more or less likewise to the autochthonal stocks. Due to its inordinate abdominal fat belongingss, the broiler meat is less appealing if consumers have to take between broiler meat and cockerel meat ( Crawford, 1990 ) . This can be considered as a great advantage for the rapid enlargement of cockerel raising in distant countries. The meat from male biddies of bed strains is believed to be more suited for the readying of poulet daintinesss because of less abdominal fat belongings, succulence and most significantly the desirable spirit of the meat. Due to its smaller size, late there has been a great demand of cockerels in eating houses, hotels and consumer demands where both eating house holders and consumers are benefited which is making a chance for cockerel production. ( Haleem, 1987 )
2.8 Types of production systems.
In Mauritius we have 4 types of production systems which are the:
Semi intensive system
Backyard production system
2.8.1 The intensive system
The industrial system of production besides form parts of the intensive system, where there are really big measures of poulets are present in the grow-out farms. Food And Allied Limited is one of private companies which operate on an industrial system of production.
In this sort of production animate beings are kept in a reasonably little country or at a high stocking denseness and the degree of disposal and inputs involved are high in this system of production. Though this system of production is wholly dependent on usage of dressed ores manufactured locally, the natural stuffs are imported. The birds are under changeless veterinary monitoring. All veterinary merchandises including vaccinums are imported. The birds are kept in big edifices where most favourable conditions are maintained and reared on the deep litter system ( FAO Country Report, 2007 )
2.8.2 The semi-intensive system
The stocking denseness is lesser in the semi intensive system compared to the intensive system of production but the degree of direction and inputs are low. In this system the birds can be of broiler type or bed type. They are fed dressed ores and have small veterinary attention. They are normally kept on deep-litter but on a small-scale and at the dorsum of the house. They are fed dressed ores and have small veterinary attention. The birds are largely kept in concrete edifices but the environment predominating interior is really frequently hapless. The merchandises which are the eggs and meat from these farms are by and large sold to the populace in the vicinity through some jobbers ( FAO Country Report, 2007 )
2.8.3 The backyard/extensive system
In the backyard system all the birds are kept in the backyard and there is no input or if present, it is at a really low degree. It besides includes those units where the animate beings are left to roll and look for their provenders. In this system of production, the local poulets roam and expression for nutrient. There is a lower limit of inputs, normally dwelling of little sum of dressed ores and in some instances of kitchen leftovers. There is no veterinary attention provided and production is really low. Nevertheless the merchandises from this system of production normally bring a higher net income than those from commercial houses, both in instance of meat and eggs ( FAO Country Report, 2007 ) . In the small towns, the birds usually spend the dark on trees in the backyard. Backyard domestic fowl are the prevailing farm animal species in many rural countries of the developing states and comprise chiefly local unimproved domestic fowl strains and few improved strains. ( Ahlers et al 2009 ) Backyard domestic fowl production plays an of import function in poorness relief and betterment of household nutrient security in many hapless rural families of the developing states. ( Adongo 2004 )
In the twelvemonth 2002, it was estimated that around 1000 husbandmans are involved in backyard household domestic fowl production consisted of around 1000 husbandmans in Mauritius, and around 4000 in Rodrigues. The husbandmans in Rodrigues rear autochthonal scavenging poulets, which are known as the ‘local ‘ strain, most likely a mixture of Rhode Island Red, Australorp and Naked cervix strains which were brought on the island a few centuries ago. ( Jugessur, V. and Pillay, M. ( 2002 )
2.9 Nutrition of birds
Water is the most of import food for domestic fowl as a deficit of H2O supply may impact the bird ‘s public presentation more rapidly than a deficit of any other food. Water is of import in digestion and metamorphosis of domestic fowl. The organic structure of the bird comprises of 55 to 75 % of H2O. There is a strong relationship between provender and H2O consumption. Water softens provender in the harvest to fix it for crunching in the ventriculus. The chemical reactions involved, require H2O to ease the procedures of digestion and alimentary soaking up ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins and Minerals
The chief beginnings of protein for domestic fowl provenders are carnal proteins such as fish repast and works proteins such as soybean repast and maize gluten meal. On a dry-weight footing, the organic structure of a mature broiler is more than 65 % protein ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
Fats are of import beginnings of energy for domestic fowl diets because they contain twice the energy as any other provender ingredient. This characteristic makes fat an of import tool for the proper preparation of get downing and turning diets. Fat makes up approximately 17 % of the dry weight of a market broiler ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
Carbohydrates make up the largest part of a domestic fowl diet. They are normally in the signifier of sugar, starches or cellulose. Carbohydrates are a major energy beginning for domestic fowl and some of import beginnings of saccharides can be obtained from grains such as maize, wheat, and milo ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
Vitamins are indispensable for life and they must be provided in proper measures for poulets to turn and reproduce. Although some of these vitamins are abundant in provender ingredients, a vitamin premix is normally used by the dietician to guarantee equal strengthening of the birds.
The most widely recognized usage of minerals is the formation of heterosexual, strong and stiff castanetss ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
Puting biddies besides need minerals, chiefly Ca, for eggshell formation. As grains are low in minerals, domestic fowl provenders are supplemented with with beginnings of minerals ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
2.9.3 Feed Additives
Poultry provenders frequently contain substances that are non concerned with alimentary demands. For illustration, an antioxidant may be included to forestall rancidity of the fat in the diet, or to shelter foods from loss by oxidization. Pellet binders may be used to better the texture and soundness of pelleted provenders. Coccidiostats are frequently used in broiler provenders ( Damron B. L. and Sloan D. R. , 2003 ) .
2.10 Feeding schemes
Ojewola G. S. And Ozuo U. K. , 2006 carried out an experiment with cockerels of five hebdomads old by replacing Soyabean repast with palm meats meal at different per centums of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % . Palm meat repast is a byproduct of palm oil extraction ( Tewe O. O. , 2003 ) and is abundant in many tropical parts ( Onwudike O. C. , 1986 ) . Inclusion of 20 % of palm meats repast in the provender of cockerels was the best scenario in footings of weight addition and economic public presentation ( Ojewola G. S. and Ozuo U. K. , 2006 ) .
2.11 Litter direction
There two systems of litter direction, which are the deep litter systemAccording to David Sainsbury, shaves should normally be placed at a deepness of 150 millimeter or another stuff can be placed at the same deepness. He besides suggests that it is better to put the shaves at a deepness of 70 millimeters and the remainder to be put subsequently. The litter should non be allowed to be caked. The add-on of litter at a ulterior phase dilutes the birds ‘ dungs, therefore heightening the activities of the birds. A high degree of ammonium hydroxide is unsafe for all birds at any age. It may do respiratory jobs subsequently taking to blindness. ( David Sainsbury, 2000 )
The advantages of the deep litter method are:
It can be managed rapidly and easy.
It can be used as compost in the terminal.
The birds get to rub through the bugs and utile civilization of the life compost litter stuff, which is good for them.
It is safe and the birds stay healthy ( Ware L. , 2011. )
2.12 Health and diseases
Farmers consider that the cockerels are less vulnerable to diseases compared to broilers ( Sil et al. , 2002 )
2.13 Heat emphasis
Heat emphasis has been one of the major jobs which the broiler industry is confronting in the tropical and semitropical countries. This is because broilers can merely achieve the coveted concluding live weight in a stress free environment ( Sabah et al. , 2008 ) . When exposed to high temperatures, broilers exhibit many behavioral alterations which allow them to re-establish heat balance with their milieus ( Gray et al. 2003 ) . But harmonizing to Fuquay ( 1981 ) , in hot environment importance should be placed on diets to raise consumption or change the degrees of proteins, aminic acids or other foods to increase the transition of provender to meat ( Onu P. N. , 2009 ) .
Early mortality in bird flocks may happen due to failure in accommodating to the new environmental status, disease, or disappearing of yolk pouch in the bowel. Sometimes unavailability to feed and H2O the biddies do non get down to eat and imbibe, they may last for few yearss with the yolk pouch but one time depleted, the biddies will shortly decease ( Tabler, Berry and Mendenhall, 2004 ) .
Figure: Average mortality for broiler flocks
Beginning: Tabler, Berry and Mendenhall, 2004
These informations show that broiler mortality normally peaks at about 3 to 4 yearss after arrangement, declines until about twenty-four hours 9 or 10 so stabilizes until about twenty-four hours 30. ( Tabler, Berry and Mendenhall, 2004 ) .
Types of domestic fowl industries ( broiler and egg beds )
What are cockerels ( nature, behavior )
Destiny of cockerels
CSO stats on position of cockerel production and domestic fowl production for the last 10 year
Tendencies of egg beds produced, will give information on twenty-four hours old cockerels produced.
Number of little graduated table cockerels manufacturers through extension services
Systems of production
Traditional poulet production
Organic provender in instance of cockerels
Performance of cockerels
Normal turning demands of broilers
Brooding and rise uping conditions
Inoculation and sanitation
Ventilation in turning domestic fowl farms
Consumer penchant towards meat quality and measure
Energy, vitamin and protein demand of domestic fowl
Monetary value of corn traveling high in the universe market
Banning of provender additives
Turning poulets in Torrid Zones
Body weight and FCR
Butchering age of cockerels and broilers
Litter analysis ( moisture content )
Village poulet production
Advantage of intensive production
Advantage of organic domestic fowl
CRD design in puting biddies