Chapter four: Findings and Analysis4.0 Introduction A survey was conducted in order to achieve the research objectives of the topic. It has been done online with the use Google forms where participants give their opinions by responding on the questionnaire. The questionnaire has been shared to different people, which are Malagasy people in different ages. They have been guided to answer the questions that leads to the purpose of the research objectives. The form of the questions has been translated into the native language which is Malagasy to better understand the issues, so that participants can answer easily. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) was used to enter and organize the data, and Excel Spreadsheet was used to filter the variables, to draw the tables and data. The analysis of the study furnish more understanding and comprehension of the issues. The survey also has improved my knowledge, my personal skills and given a light about this topic.4.1 Participants ages and the frequency of the use of Facebook Figure 4.1The participants who replied to the questionnaire have different ages as following: 5% of them is under 15 years old. 30% are between 16 and 20 years old. The 40% are young people between 21 and 25. And 25% of them are over 26 years old. Knowing the age help to identify people who respond the most which is young people at 16 to 25 years old. Figure 4.2As the study of the research concerns about the capital, it was crucial to know the region where the people come from. Antananarivo is divided in 4 regions: Analamanga, Bongolava, Vakinankaratra, Itasy. On this figure, people who come from the region of Analamanga are many with 90,9% of the respondents. 9,1% from the province shared their opinions about the subject.Q.1 Do you usually access Facebook? Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4Apparently, 100% confirms that they are connected on Facebook every day. This question shows the assiduity of the Facebook users in Antananarivo and also remains that this social networking site takes a part of their routines as it becomes indispensable for them.Q.2 What is the most social media platform used in Antananarivo? Figure 4.4As we can see, Facebook maintains the first place of the most used social media n Antananarivo with 100% of responds.Shannon Greenwood, Andrew Perrin and Maeve Duggan reported that a platform that is very trendy and famous nowadays is Facebook. As like to other country, Malagasy people are influenced by Facebook whether it is kids, teenagers or adult people. A few people use Instagram as well, however, the number of Instagram user is not remarkable compared to Facebook. 4.2 Costs and access of FacebookQ.3 What do you think about the cost of Social Media access in Madagascar? Knowing the cost of Facebook in Madagascar determines and proves the purchasing power of Malagasy citizens. Figure 4.5The pie chart differentiates the idea of respondents about the cost, 50% think that it is affordable for them that is why they utilizes social media a lot. 40% see that it is still expensive and 10% find it cheap.The half of people see the cost is reasonable. This is because of the three famous operators (orange, telma and airtel) that are in competition to attract more consumers. 2 others operators also have been also entered in competition which are Blueline and Bip, as reported by Sophie in her blog Ma philo-sophie. Blueline begun its service mobile which is available everywhere in Madagascar on June 2016.The figure 4.6 below exposes the various operators used in the capital: Obviously, 60% use telma packages as it offers low-cost internet package. The 35% use others operators like Blueline and Bip, this two are still recent. 20% use Orange which offer free access of Facebook and 15% use Airtel as it seems to be the most expensive of them. Figure 4.665% of respondents confirm having internet at home, and 40% do not. This is to know if whether the people can access different sites apart from Facebook, and also to conclude that people can access on Facebook at any time.Q.4 What devices do you use while connecting? Figure 4.7 This question is asked to determine communication tools that are useful for Internet using. Mobile phones have different tools disposed to consumers for digital communication, there are different applications which facilitate the access of each platform. For examples, we can find messenger, WhatsApp, play store, google on a mobile, these various applications help clients to browse Internet. While analysing the answer, we noticed that mobile phone is the primary tools used in Antananarivo 75% of participants own effectively mobile phones.25% use personal laptop. People who use laptop obviously have internet at home or at work, hence, internet debit is less limited because they connect with Wi-Fi network or they use 4G networks.With digital communication, people learn to create content on web like blog or social media account. It increases then the numbers of Internet users. In Dr. Kwami’s Digital Communication Course, he stated the essentiality of the multiple literacies for people who uses digital communication: technological literacy which assists in manipulating devices, media literacy for creating images, videos and sounds, and visual literacy to help interpreting images.4.3 Benefits and Inconveniences of using FacebookQ.5 What are the center of you interests on Facebook? Figure 4.8Friends, actualities, humours and jokes are topics that interest the most Malagasy people in Antananarivo. Those who are interested in social life, sales and others are few. 45% see that Facebook is best for talking to friends, they use the platform for that reason, this percentage is not surprising because Social Media is created to facilitate communication. 30% are interested in actualities, and 10% in humours and jokes. The objectives of the question are to see the kind of distractions that social networking site provides and to analyse the importance of digital media today. There are many different topics that can be talked and shared on Facebook. People can satisfy themselves by watching videos, photos and articles. Traditional media is the old media including newspapers, magazines, radio and televisions characterized as a one-way communication to audience (Peterson 2008), the entrance of new media changed the way people communicates, and the way they use it because they want to get satisfaction of their needs everyday. Q.6 While using Facebook, have you learned something on it whether news or information or skills? Figure 4.9This question was asked to collect the benefits given by using Facebook on people. 90% of participants accepts that they learnt news, information and skills from it. It proves that Facebook can enlarge our knowledge and give us an insight of a subject of our interest. Personal skills gained by people depends on what they seek.Q.6 What skills and experiences have you got from Facebook? Figure 4.10People have got many different skills from Facebook, many people learnt how to cook by watching videos. They discovered new recipes from different countries so that they can apply it at home. Thus, respondents said that they get informed of latest news and breaking news online, whether international or local. Facebook keeps people updated to facts and phenomena that happened around the world. Indeed, there are different lifestyle for any generation and genders, it can be beauty tutorial and advices, health advices, social communication, musics. Others said that Facebook has helped them a lot in finding job, in Antananarivo, to get a job is challenging because many people are unemployed, and there is no creation of new jobs; but on Facebook they can see more options and choice as being self-employed or creating their own business. In addition, Facebook also provides environmental issues, some participants have learnt to protect environment, they have participated in a discussion of a group about the solution of pollution, the practice on energy renewable in Antananarivo, and the protection of animals.Moreover, few participants studied photography, graphism and IT essentials by exchanging experiences with friends and other professionals who master it.Q.7 For what reasons do you use Facebooks? Figure 4.11The reasons why people use Facebook show what media brought to the audience and to understand the role of online media in Antananarivo. 51,30% use Facebook to communicate, because according to the participants, Facebook relates them with family and friends. They can interact with them, they learn news about their relatives which are abroad or on travel. Facebook is an easy tool to communicate rapidly, instantly. The message can be simple and people can get feedback immediately. They also affirmed, there are relatives that they have not seen for a long time, consequently, they are obliged to use Facebook to keep contacts. It is obvious that communication is the biggest role of Facebook in Antananarivo.20,21% say Facebook informs them about news. The number of people who get information on it is average. 2,56% get advices, and 2,56% publish news.The 18% get distractions when they have free time or bored. There are a lot of distractions like games, clip video in Facebook. People also like to watch what the others post and it keeps them entertained.5,12% think Facebook educates them. This percentage is not much compared to the others, which means that for Malagasy people, Facebook does not provide any education subjects. Q.8 Name three bad or positive impacts caused by using Facebook a lot on young people?The objectives of the question are to collect people’s opinion, to build awareness and to prevent young people that Facebook disturbs student life because of the inconvenient it brings. People have given different ideas and point of views in the answers. But basically, participates gave more negative than positive impacts, so, 83,33% of the answers comprehend side effects and 16,66% are benefits.