Gaelic Lifestyle Essay, Research Paper
During the period when the Celts existed, which is about 800 BC & # 8211 ; 400 AD, they were merely a small folk compared to other big civilisations such as the Romans and Greeks. They still managed to suppress many parts and prove winning in most of their conflicts. Who were these Kelts that survived legion battles? Where did they arise? What sort of societal construction did they hold? What kinds of beliefs did they hold? What kind of arms and armour did they use in conflict? What were some of their military tactics? These are some of the inquiries that will be evaluated in the following paragraphs.The Celts were tall, fair-skinned warriors who were good built, had blond hair and bluish eyes. Some of them washed their hair in lime H2O to increase the chromaticity of it. Some of them shaved their face funguss, but others let them turn long. Some besides shaved their cheeks and allow their mustaches grow so long that they would cover their oral cavity. While eating, they sat on wolves or Canis familiaris teguments. They ate at low tabular arraies, like the Chinese, and were served by immature male childs and misss. They cooked large quarters, normally from a hog or calf over a fire on a tongue and the hero was served the biggest part. Sing as how the they were so aggressive and easy to anger, they frequently fought during repasts or challenged each other to fights.The Celts lived in the Western part of Europe called the Normandy part. Normandy is a little part in the North of France, but they spread out from that part through all of France and Belgium. They besides conquered countries in the western portion of Germany, through the Black Forest part, along the Jura Mountains of Switzerland, along the Alps and to the upper portion of Spain in the Pyrenees Mountains. They expanded their part to Spain and Portugal in 600 BC and through Italy, beyond the Alps in 386 BC. In 325 BC & # 8211 ; 279 BC, they conquered countries throughout Greece, and in 278 BC they expanded into Asia Minor. But around 250 BC, the Romans regained their power in Italy and pushed the Celts back towards Gaul ( modern twenty-four hours France ) until 52 BC when the Romans, under bid of Julius Caesar eventually pushed them out of chief land Europe and into England and so into Ireland, where the Celts fended themselves from any farther onslaught from their southern and eastern neighbours. Gaelic society was fundamentally divided into three categories, the Nobility, the Aes Dana and the Commoners or Churls. The Nobility, or warrior category, were the landholders who were in control of the land, herds and most of the physical wealth. They spent their clip carry oning concern, playing board games and watching young persons at field games. The Aes Dana were work forces of art and acquisition and included many skilled craftsmen. The Commoners owned no land, but were free, non slaves. These three groups made up the major kin which was called the Tuath. The Tuath was ruled by the Ri. His function was chiefly in traffics outside the Tuath and was a war leader. His authorization was held up and carried out by a council of Nobles.The Celtic folks had many spiritual beliefs and were besides really superstitious. They believed certain animate beings represented different portents or messages. For illustration, the fish symbolized second sight ; the snake was godly wisdom ; the hare was good luck ; the birds were liquors of prognostication ; the Equus caballus represented sovereignty ; the firedrake was a guardian spirit. Supreme beings played really of import functions in people & # 8217 ; s day-to-day modus operandis. Not a individual occupation could be done without holding the Gods involved someway. They were responsible for the seasons and they controlled the natural universe of which adult male was a portion: they hence had to be placated through intermediaries-the druids-who knew the ancient wisdom and could guarantee that the right processs were at all times followed. There were three spiritual businesss that were exempted from revenue enhancements and military service. They were the Bards, the Augurers and the Druids. The Bards, who were bookmans, were responsible for entering poesy and traditions of the folks. Augurers oversaw forfeits and foretold the hereafter, like the Prophetss of ancient times. The Druids, intending & # 8220 ; cognition of the oak & # 8221 ; or instead & # 8220 ; profound knowledge & # 8221 ; were trained in jurisprudence and doctrine, they were considered & # 8220 ; originators of wisdom & # 8221 ; like Socrates, Aristotle or Hippocrates of Greece. They studied the motions of the celestial organic structures, gave direction to immature work forces in uranology, the size of the universe and of the Earth, and the power and abilities of the Gods. They besides taught about the hereafter ; they believed that the psyche does non die, it merely passes from the earthly organic structure to the celestial organic structure. It is said that this belief in the hereafter is what gave them their utmost courage in conflict. The Druids were non
only teachers, but priests, magicians and judges too. They were highly respected by all of the Celtic tribes and other cultures as well. Some of the Celtic gods were Lugh, De Dagda and Oghma. Lugh was like Ra in the Egyptian culture, he was the Sun god, but he was also the god of war, like Mars of the Roman culture. De Dagda was the high king of the Tuatha de Dannan (Folk of the goddess Dana). His name meant ‘The Good god’. He was the Celtic god of the earth, heavens, and magic amongst others. He had a harp made of oak which, and when he played it, it put the seasons in their order, so that spring came after winter, summer after spring and autumn followed summer. He had a wife named Boand, who gave birth to nine children, the most important being Angus, Brigid, Oghma, Midir and Bodb the Red. Oghma was the Irish god of literature and eloquence, one of the sons of De Dagda and the champion of the Tuatha de Dannan. He invented the Ogham Script, which was originally intended to be carved upon the edges of standing stones. Each Tuath would had a divine father or tribal god, who was linked to the welfare of the Tuath and the power and authority of the Ri. Celtic warriors were well equipped with an arsenal of weapons and armor, and were always ready to fight. During battles, they dressed in long oval shields that covered most of their body. These oval shields were usually made of wicker or wood and might have been covered with leather. Some warriors carried spears, which looked like javelins. These spears were made of wood, which the Celts would throw at opposing forces to knock down some of the enemies. The range was greater than an arrow, so they had more of an advantage over the enemy. The common warriors would wear leather helmets that provided little to no protection, but wealthy warriors could afford bronze helmets that very protective. During the Bronze Age, they carried a sword that was only designed for thrusting, not cutting. Eventually, the Celts developed a ‘Cut – Thrust’ Sword which was a long iron double-edged sword. In the Iron Age, they developed their most popular sword, which was the double-edged Broad sword. It was made of iron and bronze, and it was one of the heaviest swords ever created. It had a wooden scabbard covered with leather and was lined with fur, with bronze chaps, and an iron or bronze blade.The Celts used only a few battle tactics to overcome their enemies, but they were still very successful in battle. Chariots were an important part of Celtic warfare, a method that was very effective against the Romans. Warrior and driver were a strong team. The driver would bring the chariot to the point of battle, at which the warrior would leap from the chariot and engage the enemy, the driver would then wheel off to one side, ready to come sweeping in to retrieve the warrior when needed. Psychological warfare was used quite often by the Celts. They would paint their faces to look like demonic creatures to scare the enemies to get the first hit against the enemy. They would also scream while attacking enemies which also brought fear into their enemies which usually made them hesitate, which allowed them to get the first hit. The last psychological technique used by the Celts was attacking their enemies naked, which made the enemy either run away or hesitate, so they could get the first hit on their enemies. Fighting was very religious in the Celtic culture, which is why most of them went into battle with almost no fear at all. The Druids also sometimes raised their spirits or encouraged them before the battles. The other battle tactic the Celts used was guerilla warfare, which enabled them to ambush the enemy. They were the first people to use guerilla warfare; other civilizations were still using formation tactics to attack the enemy. This gave them the advantage of surprise against their enemies, which is very useful, especially went outnumbered.As you can see, the Celts were a culture that thrived and were able to dominate almost all of Europe, from the Bronze Age well into the early Christian period. The areas that remained Celtic after the Romans took over were the Isle of Man, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany and Cornwall. The Celts were excellent artisans and warriors who were very creative. They invented the chariot and the idea of chariot warfare long before the Romans did. They were one of the first people to use the horse as a beast of burden and they also used the horse in warfare. They were inventive storytellers and poets. They combined their religious beliefs with almost everything they did, which is what gave them their bravery, perseverance and strength to overcome and defeat their enemies. Finally, their ancient wisdom and understanding is thought, by many to be beyond other cultures.