Buffers ion is shown. The buffered solution

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Buffers are
known to counteract the change in ph when too much or little hydrogen or
hydroxide ions are added and removed from the blood. The buffers consist of
weak acids and its conjugated base. An example would be the carbonic acid-bicarbonate
buffer that steps in to maintain pH values (Figure 4). The protons added to the
solution are dissociated from some of the weak acid molecules of the buffer,
converting to the base of the buffer. The following reaction describes the
involvement of carbonic acid, with the involvement of water, to show the acid
and base balance.

On the
right, the acid and base reaction is displayed. The water would act as a base,
but it is not initiated in the reaction, and the carbonic acid (H2CO3)
as the acid. The conjugate acid is H3O+, if water is present, and
bicarbonate ion (HCO3) as the conjugated base. In this case, only
the disassociation of the H+ ion is shown. The buffered solution – which is the
blood – is dependent on the ratio of CO2 and HCO3-
present in the blood. The ratio is constant because the buffer components have
a high concentration to the amount of H+ added. Thus, the relative change
between CO2 and HCO3- concentration is tiny
when H+ is added to the blood due to metabolic processes. This is because of the
large concentration HCO3- takes up in the blood. Usually,
the favoured pH value for the buffering to occur is between 5.1 and 7.1;
however, the body maintains a pH of 7.4, which is significantly far from the
optimal value. In this case, the added protons become vigorous for the buffer
to act upon alone. With this situation, the lungs act by removing excess CO2
from the blood, through rapid breathing, to help raise the blood pH by
shifting the equilibrium. During intensive exercising, the heart rate becomes
very rapid, this gives little time for CO2 to be transferred for
oxygen – raising the concentration of CO2 which then reacts with
water to produce more H2CO3. The increase in carbonic
acid dissociates protons which in return raises the pH of the blood.  The quick breaths taken by the lung shift the
equilibrium in both reactions and maintain the Ph required for homeostasis. When
pH is needed to be decreased the kidneys work efficiently to reabsorb HCO3-
ions out of the urine, shifting the equilibrium, and raising the pH value. This
is done through the filtration process in the excretory system. The kidneys
reabsorb HCO3- out of the filtrate and back into the
blood for the pH levels to increase. Adding more bicarbonate ions to the blood
will put stress to the reaction, following Le Chateleir’s Principle, and the
reaction will compensate for the change and create more carbonic acid, which
will balance the Ph. An imbalance, leading to acidosis or alkalosis, can be
initiated from renal failure. The individual urinates less frequently and has
an flood of bicarbonate being reabsorbed or pushed out of the system – misbalancing
the pH levels of the body; thus, disturbing homeostasis. There are many other
buffers that contribute to the shift in equilibrium and maintaining the pH of
the blood, the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer has vast importance for being
well known in the homeostasis component.

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 When a
sound is detected, the wave travels down the auditory canal, which is in the
outer ear, striking the eardrum with a vibration that travels to the middle ear
(Figure 5). The middle ear contains the ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes, that
magnify the amplitude of the soundwaves. The sound travels from the ossicles
through membranes to the cochlea of the inner ear. This is filled with fluid,
known as endolymph. The inner ear surface contains hair cells, attached to
circles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which carry initiated sound
action potentials to the brain. Motion is detected through three semicircular canals
in each direction, which are attached to the endolymph fluid and hair cells. Any
shift detected by the canals moves the walls connected to the fluid, causing
the hair cells to stimulate impulses to the brain. Connected to the endolymph
chambers, is another section, called utriculus, where otoliths, or ear stones,
reside and contribute to movement detections of the body.


            Dizziness is a symptom that can be
misdiagnosed many times leading to serious complications with the patient. The situation
is assessed wrongly because it is not easy to directly measure the sensation individuals
feel. Dizziness is the overlapping of multiple sensations, filling the brain
with different action potentials. Vestibular disorder is known to be a
sensation of spinning; it is accompanied by nystagmus where the eyes are
rapidly jerking with movement. This makes the patient feel as if the
surrounding environment is constantly moving, giving the consciousness of being
dizzy. Individuals that have vestibular disorders experience motion sickness
and imbalance; a sensation of falling or leaning to one side occurs to the
individual. Non-vestibular dizziness is when a spinning sensation occurs inside
the head, but no nystagmus occurs and the environment does not move. With this
disorder, patients are giddy and describe to be “floating” they are seen to be
lightheaded. Relative to non-vestibular dizziness, vertigo is a phenomenon that
is continuous episodic disorder. The difference lies within the environmental
movements, non-vestibular disorder is accompanied by movements and targeted visuals,
while vertigo is aggravated by head movements. Examples of vertigo stimulation
occurs with crowded areas – such as, driving in traffic or shopping at a busy
store. There are many different types of cases surrounding vertigo: Central
Form and Peripheral. The first is known as peripheral vertigo, which is the
most severe cases than the central form of vertigo. Peripheral vertigo is
closely related to auditory symptoms – tinnitus or hearing loss – because of
the common disorders that trigger this problem. Commonly known, BPPV (Benign
Paraxysmal Positional Vertigo) is a condition that causes the otoliths to get
loose into the fluid, with their movement it leads to the sensation of
spinning. Central form of vertigo does not occur with warnings and disappear,
the conditions is much advanced to the point where walking and standing becomes
difficult. The spontaneous eye movements are prolong and become difficult to
stop, hearing problems are rare, but severe nausea, weakness, and headaches do
occur. It is necessary to locate the central point of the problem with these
cases to measure the length of the dizziness and work further towards the


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