Blood disease is a upset or disease which will impact one or more parts of the blood, forestalling our blood from executing its occupation in an effectual rate. Sometimes, it is besides known as blood upset ( Martin, E.A. , erectile dysfunction. , 2010 ) . Nowadays, there are many types of blood diseases and they are turning public wellness jobs impacting many states, races and besides cultural groups. They can be classified into ague or chronic. Some of the them are familial and can do decease.
Sickle cell anaemia ( SCD ) is a serious familial familial status which affects the hemoglobin molecule within the ruddy blood cells. It is a status in which there are deficiency of healthy and normal ruddy blood cells to transport sufficient O throughout our organic structures. The people with reaping hook cell anaemia usually have deformed ruddy blood cells which look like reaping hooks or semilunar Moons ( Mayo Clinic, 2011 ) . This is because the reaping hook cells contain haemoglobin S or sickle hemoglobin which is an unnatural hemoglobin ( MedlinePlus, 2010 ) . The unusual C – shaped cells which look like a farm tool called sickle give the disease its name ( CDC, 2011 ) . The alternate names for reaping hook cell anaemia are sickle cell disease or reaping hook cell upset, hemoglobin SS disease and HbS disease ( NHLBI.NIH, 2011 ) .
Today, 1000000s of people have been diagnosed with reaping hook cell disease. This type of blood disease is much more common in Africa and Mediterranean ( PubMed Health, 2012 ) . About one of every 12 African Americans will transport the reaping hook cell trait in a individual ‘s cistrons ( MedlinePlus, 2012 ) . Apart from that, it is estimated that 90 000 to 100 000 people in the United States chiefly Blacks or African Americans are affected by reaping hook cell anaemia. About one of every 500 Black neonates and one out of every 36 000 Hispanic-American neonates will hold this blood disease ( CDC, 2011 ) .
There are two hazard factors that can increase the opportunities of acquiring reaping hook cell anaemia which are heritage and mutant. First of all, reaping hook cell anaemia is an autosomal recessionary familial blood disease which the reaping hook cell cistron will go through from coevals to coevals. To hold this disease, the faulty signifier of the cistron must be inherited to a kid from both of the parent. A kid will hold sickle cell trait if the reaping hook cell cistron is passed from merely one parent. A individual is known as the bearer of reaping hook cell anemia if he or she has one normal hemoglobin cistron and one faulty signifier of the cistron. In add-on to, the faulty cistron can be passed to following coevals and impact them. While, if both of the parent are bearer, a 50 % opportunity of acquiring a kid who is bearer, 25 % opportunity of holding a kid who is normal and another 25 % opportunity of holding a kid with reaping hook cell anaemia ( FamilyDoctor.org, 2006 ) . Besides, permutation is a sort of cistron mutant which cause this blood disease to happen. The cistron mutant is caused by the mutagens which are physical or chemical substances that can impact the familial stuff of an being. Hence, the individual who ever stays in environment with a batch of radiation or mutagen, he or she has higher hazard of acquiring this disease ( Gan Wan Yeat, 2010 ) . This type of blood disease can be prevented if the married twosomes who both carry the reaping hook cell trait cistron do non hold any kids. By making this, the recessionary cistron will non passed from a coevals to another coevals.
A normal individual has haemoglobin A cistrons which are HbA. If the individual who suffers from reaping hook cell disease, he or she has two hemoglobin S cistrons ( HbS ) which are inherited from both parent. These HbS cistrons are caused by the cistron mutant. The base sequence in the Deoxyribonucleic acid for the synthesis of hemoglobin is changed by a individual permutation. Hence, the glutamic acid codon is now alternatively of valine codon ( BBC, 2010 ) . When the O content of an affected individual ‘s blood is low, the reaping hook cell hameoglobin will aggregate into long rods that deform ruddy cells into a reaping hook or crescent form which are unnatural hemoglobin ( Reece, J.B. , et. Al. , 2011 ) . Besides, these reaping hooks red blood cells are stiff and gluey. This consequences in less O is delivered to the organic structure ‘s tissues ( MedlinePlus, 2012 ) .
The symptoms and marks of reaping hook cell anemia normally become more obvious after an baby is 4 months old and they are changing. The most common symptom of this disease is painful events. They are sudden hurting that happens in different parts of the organic structure. This hurting is besides known as ‘sickle cell crisis ‘ . Normally, the reaping hook cell crises can do hurting in the custodies, castanetss, legs, venters and so on. This is because the reaping hook cell acquire stuck in the little blood vas as they travel, disrupting the healthy blood flow ( National Marrow Donor Program, 2007 ) . Peoples who suffer from reaping hook cell anaemia usually have anemia which will do them experience tired and weak. This is caused by the deficit of ruddy blood cells. Furthermore, they will look pale ( WebMD, 2010 ) . Apart from that, the other symptoms of reaping hook cell anaemia may include shortness of breath, sightlessness, delayed growing, hand-foot syndrome and so on. If it is non treated, shot, infections, acute thorax syndrome and organ harm are the effects of reaping hook cell anaemia ( genomics.energy.gov, 2005 ) .
Bone marrow graft is the lone remedy for reaping hook cell anaemia. However, it is hard to happen a giver who is matched with the receiver and the process has serious hazards and can even do decease. There are many types of interventions for this blood disease including medicine. Children with reaping hook cell anaemia can be treated by utilizing antibiotic penicillin in order to assist forestall infections. While hurting – relieving medicines are responsible in alleviating hurting during reaping hook cell crisis. The frequence of painful crisis besides can be reduced utilizing hydroxyuera. Furthermore, blood transfusions are another type of interventions for reaping hook cell anaemia. The blood transfusion can assist to alleviate anaemia by increasing the figure of normal blood cells in circulation ( Mayo Clinic, 2011 ) . This is because the reaping hook shaped cells live merely 10 to 20 yearss which is much shorter than the normal ruddy blood cells. Furthermore, a balanced diet is needed. The addendums of folic acid, vitamin D and Zn should be taken in order to assist do new ruddy blood cells. Alcohols and coffin nail fumes should be avoided ( FamilyDoctor.org, 2006 ) .
As a decision, reaping hook cell anaemia is a chronic blood disease that can non be underestimated. This is because there is no remedy for the people with this blood disease. However, there are many types of interventions and forecast can assist to forestall farther jobs which are associated with this blood disease. Prevention is better than remedy. Hence, people from all walk of life should working out preventative action to avoid them from acquiring this terrible and rare disease.