Assessment of Lake Contamination Essay

Appraisal of ecosystem wellness is going of all time more of import in pull offing H2O resources. The explosive growing of population followed by industrial developments has placed ever-increasing force per unit area on both aquatic and tellurian ecosystems. Although lakes contain & lt ; 0.01 % of all the H2O on the Earth’s surface, they hold & gt ; 98 % of the liquid surface fresh water. Many beings depend on fresh water for endurance, and worlds often depend on lakes for a great many ‘goods and services’ such as imbibing H2O, waste remotion, piscaries, agricultural irrigation, industrial activity, and diversion. For these grounds lakes are of import ecosystems ( Hairston et al. , 2002 ) . However, in the last decennaries it has been recognized that eutrophication of lotic and lentic H2O organic structures is potentially a far more serious job, due to assorted grounds such as urban growing, alteration land use/land screen alterations and improper direction of urban lakes. Eutrophication is characterized by inordinate works and algal growing due to the increased handiness of one or more confining growing factors needed for photosynthesis ( Schindler 2006 ) , such as sunshine, C dioxide, and alimentary fertilisers. Eutrophication occurs of course over centuries as lakes age and are filled in with deposits ( Carpenter 1981 ) . However, human activities have accelerated the rate and extent of eutrophication through both point-source discharges and non-point burdens of restricting foods, such as N and P, into aquatic ecosystems ( i.e. , cultural eutrophication ) , with dramatic effects for imbibing H2O beginnings, piscaries, and recreational H2O organic structures ( Carpenteret Al. 1998 ) .

1.1 Fresh Water Ecosystem

Fresh H2O ecology emphasizes chiefly the survey of relationship between beings and the fresh H2O environment. Study of all facets ( physical, chemical, geological and biological ) of fresh H2O is termed as limnology.[ 1 ]

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Fresh water ecosystems are characterized as lotic and lentic.

1.1.1 Lotic Communities. Lotic systems are streamlined H2O systems.

Ex-husband: rivers, watercourses, brooks, Brookss and springs.

Water current is much more of major commanding and restricting factor in watercourses. Velocity of current varies greatly in different parts of the same steam. Land-water interchange is comparatively more extended in watercourses, ensuing in more unfastened ecosystem and a heterotrophic type of community metamorphosis. Therefore, stream signifier an unfastened ecosystem that is interdigitated with tellurian and Lentic system. Oxygen tenseness is by and large more unvarying in watercourses and there is small or no thermic or chemical stratification.[ 1 ]

The main manufacturers that remain for good attached to tauten substrate are attached green algae such as Cladophora, incrusting diatoms and aquatic mosses of the genus Fontinalis. The consumers show certain such characteristics as lasting fond regard to house, substrate, presence of maulerss and chumps, gluey bottoms, streamlined organic structures, planate organic structures, positive rheaotaxis and positive thigmotaxis. Thus a assortment of animate beings are found, which are fresh H2O sponges and caddis-fly larvae, larvae of Stimulium and Blepharocera, snails and platyhelminths, fish and stone fly and dayfly nymphs.[ 1 ]

In contrast with pools and lakes, where the outstanding zonation is horizontal, in watercourse, it is longitudinal. Thus longitudinal zonation of fish in watercourse becomes really much apparent, which is influenced chiefly by gradients of temperature, speed and pH of the medium.[ 1 ]

1.1.2.Lentic Communities:Lentic systems are standing or non-flowing Waterss.

Ex-husband: lakes, pools, swamps, fens and youthful pools.

The assorted beings are found distributed in different zones.i.e. Littoral, limnetic and profundal zones. Therefore, in littoral zone, the manufacturers are ( one ) rooted or benthal workss, chiefly seed workss and ( two ) Floating green workss, the phytoplanktons, which are chiefly the algae. The frozen aquatic plants by and large form homocentric zones. Within the littoral zones, from shoal to deeper Waterss in pools and lakes, following observation can be made ( I ) A zone of emergent species are found, which are rooted aquatic plants with their assimilating variety meats projecting above the H2O degree. These are species of Typha, Scirpus, Sagittaria, eleocharis etc. ( two ) zone of frozen workss with drifting foliages, such as species of Nymphaea, nelumbo etc. ( three ) zone of submergent flora, dwelling of frozen workss that remain wholly or mostly submerged in H2O. These include the species of Potamogeton, ruppia, Ceratophyllum. Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nitella, Chara, Elodea, anacharisisoetes etc. The phytoplankton’s in the littoral zones are several species of algae that keep on drifting in this every bit good as in limnetic zone. Some algae found in littoral zone are attached to or associated with the frozen workss. These algae are diatoms, green algae, including unicellular signifiers as desmid, filiform ( attached or drifting ) as species of spirogyra, Zygnema, Oedogonium, cladophora, Chara etc. And assorted colonical signifiers as Volvox, hydrodictyonetc ; blue green algae.[ 1 ]

In littoral zone the consumers are animate beings in which perpendicular instead than horizontal zonation is more dramatic. Some of the common animate beings of this zone are pool snails, damsel fly nymphs, rotifers, platyhelminths, Hydra, some insect larvae etc. Those resting or traveling on the underside or beneath silt or works dust, are sprawling odanatanymphs, crayfish, isopods and certain dayfly nymphs. More deeper into the bottom clay are tunneling Odonatas and Ephemeroptera, boodles, segmented worms, snails and chironomids and other Diptera larvae. The nekton beings in littoral zone are grownup and larvae diving beetles and assorted grownup hempitera.Various Diptera larvae and pupae remain suspended in H2O. Amphibians, such as toads, polo-necks and H2O serpents are entirely found in the littoral zone. Pond fish support on traveling freely between the littoral and the limnetic zone, but most species spend a big portion of their clip in the littoral zone. The zooplankton of the littoral zone is instead characteristic and differs from that of the limnetic zone in preponderance of heavier, less floaty Crustacea which frequently cleaving to workss or rest on the underside. Important constituent of zooplanktons are big, weak swimming species of H2O fleas, some cyclopoidea and all of the harpacticoidea, some rotifers and many seed shrimps. The neuston beings of littoral zone are three surface insects.

In limnetic zone, the manufacturers are chiefly phytoplanktonic algae, which are diatoms, green algae and bluish green algae, as described in littoral zone. Besides them in limnetic zone, some other manufacturers are algae like green mastigophorans chiefly the dinoflagellates, euglenidae and volvocidae. In temperate lakes phytoplankton populations show pronounced seasonal fluctuations, sometimes organizing conspicuous blooms or pulsations.[ 1 ]

The consumers of limnetic zone, the zooplanktons represent a few species but their figure is big. Copepods, cladocerans and rotifers are chiefly present, the species of which are wholly different from those of the littoral zone. Common signifiers are diaptomus, Cyclops, diaphanosoma, Sida and bosmina. Swimming ( nekton ) animate beings in this zone are entirely the fish, as the ventriculus shads, that feed on planktons.[ 1 ]

In profundal zone, the beings chiefly depend for their nutrient on the littoral and limnetic zones, since there is no incursion of effectual visible radiation to this zone. In return, this zone provides ‘rejuvenated’ foods, that are carried by currents and swimming animate beings to other zones. Major life-forms are bacteriums and Fungis, abundant in the water-mud interphase ; bloodworms or hemoglobin-containing chironomid larvae and segmented worms: little boodles of the household sphaeriidae and plantomlarvae that are plank tonic. These are all adapted to defy periods of low O concentration.[ 1 ]

The lakes, in add-on to being larger in size than pools, besides show of import ecological differences. For illustration, in lakes the limnetic and profundal zones are comparatively big, as compared to littoral zone, where as in pools by and large reverse is true. Therefore, in lakes, the limnetic zone and the communities of this zone are of primary involvement. In lakes, the phytoplankton and the nature of the underside and its life beings are of first involvement. Furthermore, in pools, there is limited stratification of temperature and O whereas lakes, which are non really, shoal, shows stratification at certain seasons.[ 1 ]

Table 1.1: Lists of Lakes in India

Sl no.


List of Lakes In India


Andhra Pradesh

Kollerulake, Pulicat lake, Hussainsagar, Osman sagar,

Himayatsagar, Shamirpet lake, Mir alam armored combat vehicle,

Safilguda lake, Durgamcheruva ( secret lake ) , SaroornagarlakeAlwal lake


Arunachal Pradesh

Ganga lake, madhuri lake, sally lake



DeeporBeel Bird Sanctuary, Chandubi Lake, Chapanala Lake, BordoibaamBeelmukh Bird Sanctuary, Haflong Lake, Son Beel



Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary



Jajngir-champa, bilaspurarpa, kodar, jhomka, bunky & A ; kodar, Budhapara lake, budhatalab lake



Bhalswa horseshoe lake, najafgarhlake, sanjay lake.



Mayem Lake, Carambolim Lake, Curtorim Lake



Hamirsar Lake, Kankaria, NalSarovar, NalSarovar Bird Sanctuary, NarayanSarovar, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, SardarSarovar Dam, TholLake, Vastrapur Lake, Lakhota Lake, Sursagar Lake



Badkhal Lake, Brahma Sarovar, Karna Lake, SannihitSarovar, Surajkund, Tilyar Lake, Blue Bird Lake, currentlake beauty lake


Himachal Pradesh

Brighu Lake, Dal Lake, Dashair and Dhankar Lake, Ghadhasaru and Mahakali Lake, Kareri and Kumarwah lake, Khajjiar Lake, Lama Dal and ChanderNaun, Macchial Lake, Manimahesh Lake, Nako Lake, Pandoh Lake, Prashar Lake, Renuka Lake, Rewalsar Lake, Seruvalsar and Manimahesh Lake, Suraj Tal, Surya Afrikaans, Chandra Taal


Jammu & A ; Kashmir

Dal Lake, Pangong Tso, Tso Moriri, Wular Lake, ManasbalLake, Mansar Lake, Sheshnag Lake



Hudko lake, ranchi lake.



Bellandur Lake, Ulsoor Lake, Sankey Lake, Hebbal Lake, Shanti Sagara, DalavaiLake, Devanoor Lake, Karanjlake, Kukkarahallilake, Lingambudhi Lake



ManakodyKayal, AshtamudiLake, KuttanadLake, Maanaanchira, ParavurKayal, PunnamadaLake, Shasthamkottalake, VellayaniLake, Vembanad Lake


Madhya Pradesh

Upper Lake ( Bhopal ) , BhojWetland, Lower Lake, Bhopal, Tawa Reservoir.



Gorewada Lake, Khindsi Lake, Lonar Lake, Pashan, Powai Lake, Rankala Lake, Salim Ali Lake, Shivasagarlake TalaoPali, Upvan Lake, Venna Lake, Mehrun Lake



Loktak Lake.



Umiam Lake



Palakdil, Tam Dil






Anshupa Lake, Chilka Lake, Kanjia lake



Kanjli Wetland, Harike Wetland, Ropar Wetland



Dhebar Lake, Kaylana Lake, Kolayat, Loonkaransar, Nakki Lake, Pachpadra lake, Pachpadra Lake, Pushkar Lake, Pushkar, Ana Sagar Lake, Lake Foy Sagar, Rajsamand Lake, Sambhar Salt Lake, Sambhar, Rajasthan, Sambar, Ramgarh Lake, Balsamandlake, Balsamand Lake, UmmedSagarBandh, Kaylana Lake, Siliserhlake, Alwar, Jaisamand Lake, Alwar, Saagar Dam, Alwar, Talwara Lake, JalMahal, Man Sagar lake, Lake salusagar, DudhTalai lake, Udaipur, FatehSagar Lake, Pichola lake, Lake Pichola, Rangsagar lake, Swaroopsagar lake, Udaysagar Lake, Lake Jaisamand, Nandeshwar Lake



Gurudongmar Lake, Khecheopalri Lake, Lake Tsongmo

Lake Cholamu


Tamil Nadu

Berijam Lake, Chembarambakkam Lake, Kaliveli Lake, Kodaikanal Lake, Ooty Lake, Red Hills Lake, Singanallur Lake, SholavaramLake, Veeranam Lake, thennari lake



Kamala sagar, Rudrasagar


Utter Pradesh

Ramgarh Tal Lake, Keetham Lake, Belasagar Lake, BaruaSagar Tal, Amakhera Lake, Bhadi Tal, Nachan Tal, SheikhaJheel



Skeleton Lake, , Bhimtal Lake, Dodital, Nainital Lake, Naukuchiatal, Sat Tal


West Bengal

Debar Lake, Mirik Lake, RabindraSarobar, Rasikbil, SenchalLake, JorePokhri, East Calcutta Wetlands, Santragachhi Lake

1.2 Beginningsof Contamination of Lakes

The beginning of pollutants to lakes is normally material derived from human activities. In many countries natural stone substrates may besides ensue in high degrees of pollutants. Human activity may be responsible for increasing the erossion rates ( by excavation and fabrication usage ) of of course happening elements or by altering their chemical signifier, thereby leting concentrations to make degrees which may be a jeopardy to aquatic ecosystems and to adult male.[ 2 ]

General beginnings of contaminations to lakes may take a assortment of tracts:

  • Direct point beginnings, municipal and industrial wastewater discharges.
  • Diffuse agricultural beginnings: wash-off and dirt eroding from agricultural lands transporting stuffs applied during agricultural land usage, chiefly weedkillers and pesticides.
  • Diffuse urban beginnings: wash-off from metropolis streets, from horticultural and gardening activities in the sub-urban environment and from industrial sites and storage countries.
  • Waste disposal: transportation of pollutants from solid and liquid industrial waste disposal sites and from municipal and family risky waste and garbage disposal sites.
  • Groundwater beginnings: groundwater systems polluted from point and diffuse beginnings fluxing into rivers and straight into lake beds.
  • Atmospheric beginnings: direct moisture and dry atmospheric deposition to the lake surface amplified by the erosional recycling of atmospheric deposition on the drainage basin land surface. This latter procedure is defined as secondary cycling.[ 2 ]

In the present work seven lakes of Belgaum have been selected. One of the major lakes i.e. Fort Lake situated in Belgaum was used for disposal of municipal sewerage in the yesteryear. To measure extent of pollution of lakes and to bring forth baseline information of lake H2O quality, the survey on H2O quality appraisal of lakes is carried out.

1.3 Objective

  1. To roll up the lake H2O samples.
  2. To analyze H2O quality facets of seven lakes located in Belgaum.
  3. To analyze the extent of pollution of lake in Belgaum. And to bring forth baseline information.
  4. To foreground the major pollutants in the lake H2O.
  5. To sort the lakes by utilizing Carlson’s trophic province index values.