As are blamed to erode brand equity

As claimed by Kahn and McAlister, brand awareness and brand loyalty are impossible to
be built solely with advertising. While promotions appear to be better at drawing
consumer attention, most research studies, however, have concentrated on price
promotions only.5 Furthermore, in order to determine if the moderation impact of price or
non-price promotions is greater on the antecedents of brand loyalty such as brand trust,
brand reliability, and brand intentions, non-price promotions should be also taken into
account.6 Until the late 1900s that scholars began noticing non-price promotion.7

Besides the lack of non-price promotions research, other studies share common
drawbacks. For example, sales promotions tended to be hindered by the deficiency of the
theoretical approach. Promotions was criticized for being too narrow that solely coped
with one type of promotion at a time. Behaviorists were criticized for confining empirical
work and choosing promotions theoretically.8

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Finally, the long-term effect of promotion activities has been debated for years.9 This
debate may be due to the fact that most studies are on price promotions, and while price promotions are blamed to erode brand equity because they emphasize on price10; and
uncommitted consumers are mostly economic incentives driven which leads to promotion
driven buying behaviors.11 Empirical studies indicate that promotions indirectly affect
brand loyalty through consumer satisfaction12. However, other researchers believed that
sales promotions would trigger negative impact on brand such as price sensitivity13,
brand switching, and lower repeat purchase rates14. The drawbacks and the inconsistency
in previous research findings call for a new empirical study involving both price and non-
price promotions on the study of relationship between them and brand loyalty.