Appraising suitable quantitative categories. Punctuation, spelling, and



Appraising research articles is an
essential skill that healthcare professionals need to apply to apply the most
recent and best practice principles. In this paper, I will be appraising the
credibility and integrity for the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study that
is investigating the potential relationship between causal factors of death in
adulthood with childhood abuse and household dysfunctions.


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Signs of credibility were noted
throughout this article. When assessing the authors of the article, they appear
to be aptly educated in the medical profession; their credentials/qualifications
and familiar departments they work in are trustworthy for this research topic.

Each of these authors contributed to additional publications, demonstrating
experience. This article is a reputable source, published by a well-known
medical journal, the American Journal of Preventative Medicine, as a
peer-reviewed/academic journal. A concern of credibility amongst this article is
the dated 1998 publication year; a more recent publication article could be more

Scholarliness is addressed in the article,
following typical structure of quantitative studies. The article is simple to
follow through clear organization and frequent use of headings that address suitable
quantitative categories. Punctuation, spelling, and grammar were performed
cautiously with no errors observed. The authors did make a mistake in the article,
as they stated 8,056 members remained in the study after the exclusions were
concluded then preceded to say 8,506 in the following paragraph. Writers remained
consistent using appropriate terminology that medical professionals and the
general public can understand. Writers provided a substantial list of 68
references, increasing credibility of this article. This article was not
assigned a “doi” number; this may be due to being an older article? The
research problem is appropriate/significant for its targeted population; it focuses
largely on children and adult populations at risk and particularly healthcare
providers HCP’s. The research topic was promptly identifiable through the title
of the article; the research question was found later in the article. The
writers intrigued the readers and portrayed the value to their article by
describing how their study differs from previously published ones. This article
increases awareness/recognition towards prevention strategies for HCP’s to
consider within their practice; HCP’s can improve the prevalence’s of these
preventable health issues through early identification of household
dysfunctions and childhood abuse. Ethical conduct was followed in the research
process by utilizing four different reliable institutions that reviewed and
approved the ACE study. The researchers however, did not address/include
ethical principles that they would have used to protect the participants



research design used was a descriptive non-experimental quantitative design;
this approach was appropriate given the sensitivity of the issue, as it would
be unethical to expose children to abuse or to instigate members into household
dysfunctions; however, this results in a disadvantage due to the researchers’
inability to identify with confidence, the definitive causal relationships. The
headings integrated throughout the article appear to be correct following the
necessary categories amongst a quantitative design. The dependent variable includes
the risk behavior, health status and disease and the independent variable is
the specific adverse childhood experiences.


An asset of the study was its integrity
with its large respondent sample size of 9,508; despite exclusions from
incomplete questionnaires, the size remained large with 8,056. Sampling methods
chosen for this study appear to be convenience and random sampling. Convenience
sampling was used as the researchers selected the nation’s largest medical
center for the study; although, it may have been more beneficial if they
targeted more than one clinic/population. Random sampling occurred as the clinic’s
population has a very broad representation of the U.S population with a variety
of ages, experiences/lifestyles, and reasons for attending. External validity
was achieved as their large sample size and appropriate sampling methods
promotes generalizability. A type II error was avoided, as the results of the
study were statistically significant with the absence of the power calculation.

Data Collection

data collection process was initiated by using standardized questionnaires
within the clinic. Researchers extracted medical assessments from the
participants who were eligible for the study and analyzed particular medical
results/discoveries. Postal questionnaires were constructed from published
surveys to address particular childhood exposures and abuses. Each questionnaire
included a variety of categories, broadening the selection for exposures/experiences
for the participants. Face-to-face interviews often have increased response
rates in comparison to mailed questionnaires, however this study had a high response
rate, avoiding biases inherent in low rates. Utilizing questionnaires seems
appropriate/logical for their quantitative design; mailed questionnaires are
less costly and more time effective for all parties and maintains potential
anonymity. The authors ensured safeguards were in place to help preserve
accuracy/integrity by excluding respondents who lacked necessary
information/reports from own experiences or incomplete responses.

Data Analysis

were distributed throughout the paper, simplifying the data analysis. Safeguards
were used to ensure accuracy/integrity through utilizing the Statistical Analysis
System; logistic regression analysis was applied for possible perplexing
effects, and a sensitivity analysis was done to determine whether the exclusions
influenced the results. In Table 4, the confidence interval was 95%, making the
alpha-value 0.05. Based on the stated p-value <0.05, proving to be statistically significant, we can assume the researchers did not reject the null hypothesis; therefore, avoiding a type I error. Meaningful Coherence and Sincerity Internal and external coherence and sincerity were achieved through answering the research question. Authors acknowledged they had potential limitations and may have limited the inferences regarding causations. Comparisons were made with national surveys discovered a similar estimate; this was transparent when discussing their underestimates potentially causing downward biases and alterations in data. The authors indicated that they would be using baseline data, allowing the researchers to place the research in a previously known context. The authors were clear with they managed challenges and methodological issues throughout the research process and exclusions made. Conclusion In this paper, I appraised the ACE study's credibility/integrity by investigating the potential relationship between causal factors of death in adulthood with childhood abuse and household dysfunctions. The findings/results to the research question makes the deduction that there is a strong causal relationship. In conclusion, the methods used throughout the study continues to leave the reader feeling confident in the study's findings and has the ability to recognize when this research problem arises with their patients/clients.