INTRODUCTION Anthropometry is the study of the shape and size of the human body. As roebuck defines it – “the science of measurement and the art of application that establishes the physical geometry, mass properties and strength capabilities of the human body. ” The name derives from anthropos meaning human and metrikos meaning of or pertaining to measuring. According to Pheasant(1996) anthropometry’s historical antecedents date back to Renaissance.
He cites works such as Albert Durer’s (1471-1525) Four books of Human Proportions, which depict the diversity of humans through illustrations and classic drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci. However the field is generally described as having originated from physical anthropology, a discipline that emerged during the 19th century and among other things focuses on physical differences between people of different ethnic groups. To perform such comparison, it was necessary to develop a set of tools – 1)Measurement techniques to obtain data from individuals, )Statistical methods for transforming data from individuals into summary data that capture the properties of groups. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in life styles, nutrition and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e. g. , the obesity epidemic), and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections.
Bertillon, Galton, and criminology The savant Alphonse Bertillon gave his name in 1883 to a system of identification depending on the unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human frame. He found by patient inquiry that several measures of physical features, along with dimensions of certain bones or bony structures in the body remain fairly constant throughout adult life. He concluded that when these measurements were made and recorded systematically every single individual would be found to be perfectly distinguishable from others.
The system was soon adapted to police methods when crime fighters found value in being able to fix a person’s identity. It prevented false impersonation and brought home, to any one charged with an offense, a person’s responsibility for a wrongdoing. After its introduction in France in 1883 “Bertillonage,” as it was called, became widely popular, and credited with producing highly gratifying results. Many countries followed suit in the adoption of the method, integrating it within their justice systems.
However it was almost a decade before England followed suit when in 1894 a special committee was sent to Paris for an investigation of the methods used and results obtained with them. It reported back favorably, especially on the use of measurements for primary classification, but also recommended the adoption, in part, of the system of “finger prints” as suggested by Francis Galton, and in practice at that time in Bengal, India. There were eleven measurements: Height Stretch: Length of body from left shoulder to right middle finger when arm is raised Bust: Length of torso from head to seat, taken when seated
Length of head: Crown to forehead Width of head: Temple to temple Length of right ear Length of left foot Length of left middle finger Length of left cubit: Elbow to tip of middle finger Width of cheeks From this great mass of details, soon represented in Paris by the collection of some 100,000 cards, it was possible, proceeding by exhaustion, to sift and sort down the cards till a small bundle of half a dozen produced the combined facts of the measurements of the individual last sought.
The whole of the information is easily contained in one cabinet of very ordinary dimensions, and most ingeniously contrived so as to make the most of the space and facilitate the search. The whole of the record is independent of names, and the final identification is by means of the photograph which lies with the individual’s card of measurements. Anthropometrics was first used in the 19th and early 20th century in criminalistics, to identifying criminals by facial characteristics.
Francis Galton was a key contributor as well, and it was in showing the redundancy of Bertillon’s measurements that he developed the statistical concept of correlation. Bertillon’s system originally measured variables he thought were independent – such as forearm length and leg length – but Galton had realized that both were the result of a single causal variable (in this case, stature). Bertillon’s goal was to use anthropometry as a way of identifying recidivists—what we would today call “repeat-offense” criminals.
Previously, police could only record general descriptions and names, and criminals often used alternative identities or aliases. As such, it was a difficult job to identify whether or not certain individuals arrested were “first offenders” or life-long criminals. Photography of criminals had become commonplace but it had proven ungainly, as there was no coherent way to arrange visually the many thousands of photographs in a fashion which would allow easy use (an officer would have to sort through them all with the hope of finding one).
Bertillon’s hope was that through the use of measurements of the body, all information about the individual criminal could be reduced to a set of identifying numbers which could be entered into a large filing system. Bertillon also envisioned the system as being organized in such a way that even if the number of measurements was limited the system could drastically reduce the number of potential matches, through an easy system of body parts and characteristics being labeled as “small”, “medium”, or “large”.
For example, if the length of the arm was measured and judged to be within the “medium” range, and the size of the foot was known, this would drastically reduce the number of potential records to compare against. With more measurements of hopefully independent variables, a more precise identification could be achieved, which could then be matched against photographic evidence. Certain aspects of this philosophy would also go into Galton’s development of fingerprint identification as well. Anthropometry, however, gradually fell into disfavor, and it has been generally supplanted by the superior system of finger prints.
Bertillonage exhibited certain defects which were first brought to light in Bengal. The objections raised were the costliness of the instruments employed and their liability to become out of order; the need for specially instructed measurers, men of superior education; the errors that frequently crept in when carrying out the processes and were all but irremediable. Measures inaccurately taken, or incorrectly read off, could seldom, if ever, be corrected, and these persistent errors defeated all chance of successful search. The process was slow, as it was necessary to repeat it three times so as to arrive at a mean result.
In Bengal, measurements were already abandoned by 1897, when the finger print system was adopted throughout British India. Three years later England followed suit; and as the result of a fresh inquiry ordered by the Home Office, finger prints were alone relied upon for identification Anthropology and anthropometry During the early 20th century, anthropometry was used extensively by anthropologists in the United States and Europe. One of its primary uses became the attempted differentiation between differences in the races of man, and it was often employed to show ways in which races were “inferior” to others.
The wide application of intelligence testing also became incorporated into a general anthropometric approach, and many forms of anthropometry were used for the advocacy of eugenics policies. During the 1920s and 1930s, though, members of the school of cultural anthropology of Franz Boas also began to use anthropometric approaches to discredit the concept of fixed biological race. Anthropometric approaches to these types of problems became abandoned in the years after the Holocaust in Nazi Germany, who also famously relied on anthropometric measurements to distinguish Aryans from Jews.
This school of physical anthropology generally went into decline during the 1940s. During the 1940s anthropometry was used by William Sheldon when evaluating his somatotypes, according to which characteristics of the body can be translated into characteristics of the mind. Inspired by Cesare Lombroso’s criminal anthropology, he also believed that criminality could be predicted according to the body type. This use of anthropometry is today also outdated. Because of his extensive reliance on photographs of nude Ivy League students for his work, Sheldon ran into considerable controversy when his work became public.
Modern anthropometry and biometrics Anthropometric studies are today conducted for numerous different purposes. Academic anthropologists investigate the evolutionary significance of differences in body proportion between populations whose ancestors lived in different environmental settings. Human populations exhibit similar climatic variation patterns to other large-bodied mammals, following Bergmann’s rule, which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to be larger than ones in warm climates, and Allen’s rule, which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to have shorter, stubbier limbs than those in warm climates.
On a micro evolutionary level, anthropologists use anthropometric variation to reconstruct small-scale population history. For instance, John Relethford’s studies of early twentieth-century anthropometric data from Ireland show that the geographical patterning of body proportions still exhibits traces of the invasions by the English and Norse centuries ago. Outside academia, scientists working for private companies and government agencies conduct anthropometric studies to determine what range of sizes clothing and other items need to be manufactured in.
A basically anthropometric division of body types into the categories endomorphic, ectomorphic and mesomorphic derived from Sheldon’s somatotype theories is today popular among people doing weight training. Measurements of the foot are used in the manufacture and sale of footwear; measurement devices may be used to either directly determine a retail shoe size (e. g. Brannock Device) or determine the detailed dimensions of the foot for custom manufacture (e. g. ALINEr). The US Military has conducted over 40 anthropometric surveys of U.
S. Military personnel between 1945 and 1988, including the 1988 Army Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR) of men and women with its 240 measures. Statistical data from these surveys, which encompassed over 75,000 individuals, can be found in. Today people are performing anthropometry with three-dimensional scanners. The subject has a three-dimensional scan taken of their body, and the anthropometrist extracts measurements from the scan rather than directly from the individual.
This is beneficial for the anthropometrist in that they can use this scan to extract any measurement at any time and the individual does not have to wait for each measurement to be taken separately. In 2001 the UK conducted the largest sizing survey using scanners up to date. Since then there have been several national surveys which have followed in the UK’s pioneering steps, notably these are SizeUSA, SizeMexico & Size Thailand, the latter are still ongoing. Size UK showed that the nation had got taller and heavier, but not as much as many had expected.
Since 1951 when the last women’s survey had taken place the average weight for women had gone up from 62 to 65 kg. A global collaborative study to examine the uses of three-dimensional scanners for health care was launched in March 2007. The Body Benchmark Study will investigate the use of three-dimensional scanners to calculate volumes and segmental volumes of an individual body scan. The aim is to establish whether The Body Volume Index has the potential to be used as a long-term computer based anthropometric measurement for health care.
More conventional anthropometric measurements also have uses in medical anthropology and epidemiology, for example in helping to determine the relationship between various body measurements (height, weight, percentage body fat, etc. ) and medical outcomes. Measurement devices Anthropometric measurement methods and tools have been developed to make valid and reliable measurements of individuals in a population possible. 1)Anthropometer – similar to a height gauge; with direct reading scales up and down; and; in and out in several sizes.
The largest is used to measure stature and waist height. A middle size is used to measure sitting height, knee height, buttock to knees, and similar intervals. A smaller size is used for facial features from a backboard and headboard. 2)A direct reading sliding caliper is used to measure body width and depth. A small size is used to measure parts of hand and the width of the ears and mouth, and to determine biceps and arm widths. 3)Direct reading spreading calipers are used to measure head width and depths. 4)Special block rulers measure ankle heights. )Special foot measuring boxes include scales. 6)Flexible tape scales are used to measure body circumference and other dimensions used in clothing design. 7)Templates measure finger diameters. 8)Weight scales measure body weight. 9)Force scale measure strength. 10)Protractors measure angles. So many tools involved, anthropometry becomes time consuming and expensive. The most complete and reliable information has been prepared by the military forces, while civilian data is not complete. Measuring techniques have improved with the addition of digitizers, including optical scanners.
Observer error is the most troublesome source of anthropometric error and includes imprecision in landmark location, subject positioning and instrument applications. Accuracy (within a specified allowable error) is therefore, amongst others, dependent on the person taking the measurements. It is often advised that two persons should separately measure each subject to ensure the least amount of error. Careful and accurate location and marking of landmarks on the body, as well as proper training of personnel can ensure consistency and accuracy of measurements.
It is clear that the collection of anthropometric data is a time-consuming and expensive process that requires skilled personnel. The development of three-dimensional body scanners has opened up new possibilities for the measurement and analysis of the human body (Ashdown, 2002). In recent years, researchers have developed three dimensional body scanners that can capture the outside surface of the human body within a few seconds by using optical techniques. This measurement technique can be non-contact, instant and accurate through the use of laser light or white light and cameras.
This technology has the potential to enable researchers to collect and process more accurate anthropometric data than ever before almost instantaneously. Three dimensional scanning produces a 360 degree replica of the human body on a dimensionally accurate computer screen. This image of the human body can be stored and then viewed, rotated, sliced and measured on the computer by using automated measuring procedures whenever information is needed. This makes it possible to analyze body postures and proportions in new ways (Ashdown, 2002). Unfortunately, there are still some shaded body areas that cannot be scanned effectively.
For the time being, three-dimensional body imaging has to be used in conjunction with manual measurement. Measuring setups 1)Subject stands with back against a backboard to ensure an erect body posture, the body weight is distributed equally, and the arms, fingers and legs are fully straightened. The body is straight but not rigid. A horizontal headboard is useful for some facial measurements. 2)The subject sits erect on a flat horizontal surface and the height is adjusted with the shank vertical and close to but without pressure on the popliteal area. Body weight is distributed equally, and the torso is held erect but not rigid. )In both the setup, the head is held vertically and measurements are determined by making the Frankfort line horizontal. This is done by lining up the ear hole and the lower part of the eye orbit(eye socket) 4)The subject is placed in a supine position on a flat horizontal plane. This measuring posture is used for infants up to 24 months who cannot stand erect. In this case, stature (standing height) measurement is superseded by a length measurement from crown to sole. Anthropometry in Clothing Anthropometry is very essential in the clothing industry. It is impossible for the garment industry to survive without measurements.
Although anthropometric measurements are not as widely used as it should be, it is necessary that it be globally applied. One might think that it doesn’t make a difference but with the numerous surveys and research done, it is safe to say that anthropometric measurements make better fitting garments. One simple example is of the Center Back or Center Front measurement, It is seen that the center back length (or center front) is longer with the tape on than with the tape off. This is because a curvy line that travels the same distance as a straight line is longer.
For instance, suppose your tape on measure of CB length is 16? but your vertical length measure is only 15. 5? then drafting a block with 16” measurement will lead to a wrong pattern. SIZE UK SURVEY SizeUK – the UK National Sizing Survey is survey of 11,000 subjects using 3D whole body scanners to automatically extract 130 body measurements from each subject using two stances; standing and seated. This highly accurate size and shape data, together with each subject’s 3D point cloud, is held securely in a UK anthropometrics web-database, available for online data mining.
SizeUK is a collaboration of the UK Government, 17 major UK retailers, leading academics and technology companies. The retailers were responsible for recruiting subjects to be measured, with subjects being encouraged to register online. The principal UK clothing colleges managed the data collection process; seen as an educational opportunity. The USA scanner company [TC]2 developed special size extraction software to automatically extract 130 ‘SizeUK’ measurements from a body scan, reducing manual measuring to just 8 measurements, such as height and weight. The results were made available in 2004.
Sizemic, a UK company, is hosting the data on a secure, web-database service accessible through proprietary online data analysis tools and has the exclusive rights to sell the data on behalf of the Retailers. The potential commercial benefits for Retail clothing brands acquiring the data are considerable. The SizeUK data is owned by the UK Retailers: Arcadia Group, BHS, Debenhams, Otto UK, Great Universal Stores, House of Fraser, John Lewis Partnership, Littlewoods Retail, Marks and Spencer, N Brown, Monsoon Accessorize, Oasis Stores, REDCATS UK, Rohan Designs, Speedo International, Tesco Stores.
Volunteers were recruited through publicity in the national media, the retailers – mails shots, in- store leaflets etc. , and the SizeUK web site. Volunteers were asked to provide information on age, gender, ethnicity, perceived size, choice of measuring location and contact details. Subjects were then selected using quota sampling to meet the national statistics of age, ethnic origin, socio economic group and geo-demographics. The result was a statistically representative sample of the UK population of approximately 5,000 female and 5,000 male subjects between the ages of 16-90+.
Children were not included in the survey. Subjects were recruited from 3 geographic regions containing a total of 8 data collection points: SouthamptonCardiffBirminghamManchester LondonNottingham LeedsEdinburgh Subjects, wearing underwear, were scanned in 2 poses, standing and seated. 8-10 manual measurements, not covered by the scanning process were then taken. Each subject was asked to complete an extensive market research questionnaire which captured information on personal details, clothing issues, shopping habits and preferences, lifestyle habits including health & fitness, occupation and employment and ethnicity.
Information in the database includes: •Personal details on each subject (excluding name & address) •11,000 subjects – 50 % women and 50% men •140 measurements per subject o130 electronic o8-10 manual •1,540,000 measurements in total •22,000 scans – 2 per subject •Market Research Information – 40 clothing, shopping and lifestyle sets of information Automatic Measurement Extraction Accuracy, speed and cost are the prime benefits of using automated measurement extraction. Trials have shown that automatic measurement extraction is more reliable than traditional anthropometric measuring methods.
This is due, in part, to measurements being taken without physical contact and from a person in a relaxed pose. This stands in contrast with manual methods of measuring, where there is body surface contact that can lead to the compression of soft tissues; this particularly affects some girth measurements. Small differences can therefore arise between measurements produced by automatic and manual techniques. Survey Results The SizeUK results are available in the form of: 1)Standard Data Analysis of the measurements, shape data and market research.
This includes: •Tabulated statistical analysis of the Market Research Information. •Statistical analysis of the measurement information covering mean, max/min and frequency which can be provided in total or cut by age, region, socio economic group or ethnicity. •3D shape analysis (models of selected population subsets) which can similarly be provided in total or cut by age, region, socio economic group or ethnicity. •Cross-correlation charts of measurements and 3D shape. 2)Customised Data Analysis through online access to the SizeUK database using a set software tools.
This allows users to conduct their own analysis on a sub set of the data based on their customer profile (gender, age, region, ethnicity, socio-econ). 3)Data Analysis Services provided by Sizemic. Sizemic offers a range of basic and advanced data analysis services for customers who would like analysis carried out on their behalf. This includes measurement and shape analysis, hit rate analysis, size chart development and 3D pattern generation. Sizemic now also offers a range of generic fit mannequins based on the SizeUK measurement and shape data. Commercial Benefits
For clothing companies the data provides the potential amongst others to: •Improve the fit and specification of your garments •Optimise the efficiency of your size charts •Maximise the percentage of your target customer profile that can fit your clothes. •Increase sales by understanding the demand in certain size categories e. g. outsize, petites •Reduce size related returns •Improve buying ratios and size allocation to retail branches. [TC]2 NX-16 [TC]? ’s 3D body scanning technology scans the whole body in seconds and rapidly produces a true-to-scale 3D body model.
Scanning offers greater accuracy than manual measurements. Measurement definitions and printouts can be easily customized. A feature long sought-after for 3D body scanners is the ability to create 3D human models from 3D scans that are suitable for aesthetic viewing applications in addition to the traditional high accuracy body measurement functions. That feature is important for apparel as well as for health, fitness, and medical applications. For apparel applications, the ability to see oneself virtually dressed in various clothing styles immediately after scanning is very appealing.
The new 3D avatar generation feature and virtual fashion viewing technologies are inter-related. The avatar (a commonly used term for a virtual representation of oneself) is created in a matter of seconds by morphing a pre-existing reference template mesh to conform to the body scan geometry at over 3000 points on the surface of the scan body. The high accuracy geometry of the 3D body scan is captured within the avatar mesh which retains the smooth, watertight, and highly detailed surface (hands, head, and feet) of the reference mesh. The result is the best combination of body scan data features and human computer model features.
The avatar is created in an open-source format which can be imported into numerous 3D applications including Maya, 3D Studio Max, Rhino, and other applications supporting the . obj file format. This new feature can be used to produce high fidelity 3D human body model representations and also for virtual fashion visualization of numerous clothing categories. The virtual fashion element of [TC]? ’s new offering is a simplified approach to clothing simulation that eliminates the need to virtually sew over the body or to do cloth draping simulations. The advantage is that the simulation is automatic, fast, and robust.
The simulation is created by morphing a pre-existing 3D model template (which has the target clothing on) and morphing it using the same parameters used to create the body avatar. The result is a highly realistic image produced fully automatically in seconds. Garment morphing is not a replacement for cloth draping but rather fills a technology gap that exists today which demands automatic processing (low cost) for consumer applications of virtual dressing. The garments which work best with this simulation are those that fit close to the body (jeans, t-shirts, swimwear, intimates, etc. or those that are relatively unstructured. This new approach results in a much lower total cost of virtual fashion construction for brands and retailers versus traditional processes. With this new release, one can now produce size predictions, made-to-measure garment specifications, and virtual fashion visualization using 3D body scans – all within one application. These new capabilities are being included at no additional cost with [TC]? NX-16 3D body scanner purchases and as a free upgrade for existing customers with full coverage body scanner active maintenance programs.