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All of adsorption, 0.01g of PPC/GO nanocomposite

All batch experiments were carried out in glass vessels using
magnetic stirring at 200 rpm. The suspension containing 0.01 g of adsorbent samples
(GO, CS/GO, CS, PPC/GO)  in a 50 ml
conical flasks with 30 ml of different concentration P4R aqueous solutions, was
adjusted at appropriate pH.The concentration of ponceau 4R was determined
spectrophotometrically at 507 nm. The sorption amount of P4R, qt was
calculated using mass balance equation, eq (1)

Where qt is the sorption capacity of  P4R per unit weight of  nanocomposite at any time  t  mg/g,
Co and Ct are initial and concentration of P4R at time t (mgL-1)
respectively, calculated from absorbance value recorded by UV-Vis
spectrophotometer by the aid of calibration curve, W is the weight of adsorbents
in (g) and V is the volume of P4R solution in (liter) 24. The effect of contact time on the removal efficiency of ponceau 4R
dye by GO, CS, CS/GO and PPC/GO nanocomposite was evaluated in a time period of
210 min. To explore kinetics characteristics of adsorption, 0.01g of PPC/GO nanocomposite
sample was placed in 50 ml flask, containing 30 ml of P4R solution (2.88 ppm)
at pH=7, 27 oC. The suspension was agitated at 200 rpm at different time
intervals within the range (2-210min), after which the supernatant P4R dye
concentration was calculated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The isotherm studies
were done by contacting 0.01g of PPC/GO nanocomposite, with 30 ml of P4R at
different initial concentration (2.4, 2.88, 3.36 ,3.84 ,4.32) ppm and stirred
till complete adsorption. The experiments were performed at different
temperatures (303K, 308K, 313K, 318K). Sorption isotherms are plots of the
equilibrium adsorption capacity (qt) versus time to examine the remained
P4R in the solution with different conditions. To study the pH dependency of
dye adsorption onto 0.01 g PPC/GO, the experiment was done in 30 ml ponceau 4R
solutions with initial concentration (2.88 ppm) at pH different values (2,4,6,8,10,12)
at 27oC, the buffer solution was Prepared using mixture of 250 ml (0.062N)
of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and  250 ml of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate salts25, then the pH value was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide.

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