AIDS In Detail Essay Research Paper Acquired

AIDS In Detail Essay, Research Paper

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) . Today, despite the go oning

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production of better antibiotics since the find of penicillin, we are

confronting an infective disease against which all these drugs are virtually

powerless. This disease is distributing inexorably, killing more people and more

people each twelvemonth. AIDS does non cognize no national boundaries and does non

discriminate by race or sex. It is rampaging non merely throughout the United

States, but besides through Africa, India, China, Russia, Europe, South America,

and the Caribbean states. Even babies and kids are at hazard. AIDS is

similar to the bubonic pestilence or the “ BLACK DEATH ” that killed possibly

tierce in Europe in the fourteenth century. Yet, the difference from the

“ Black Death ” and AIDS is that it is in slow gesture because the

infective agent that causes AIDS can stay hibernating in a individual & # 8217 ; s organic structure for

several old ages before it causes illness, and because decease from AIDS can be slow

and drawn out one time symptoms appear. AIDS is basically a disease of the immune

system. The organic structure & # 8217 ; s defences are destroyed and the patient becomes prey to the

infections and malignant neoplastic diseases that would usually be fought off without any problem. In

1984 it was proved that AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus

( HIV ) . A virus is a minute infective atom that enters and kills the immune

cells, or lymph cells. Because it destroys the really mechanism worlds rely on for

protection, prior to 1996 undertaking Aids was considered a decease sentence. For

many old ages, 85 to 90 per centum of all AIDS patients died within three old ages. They

might hold recovered from one infection merely to yield to another a few months

subsequently. Between infections they remain weak, bony and unable to work or

carry on normal activities. In late 1996, about 15 old ages after the first

reported AIDS instances, research workers made the find that a certain combination

of freshly developed drugs could well protract life in some AIDS patients.

But AIDS is a demonic virus. When research workers cleared it out of a patient & # 8217 ; s

blood stream, it hid in the lymph nodes. Scientists, figured out how to ostracize it

from the lymph nodes, they found the virus lurking in the encephalon. Although, there

is hope for a remedy because they have done some experiments insulating a cistron and

it has had good consequences in some people infected with AIDS. The country that many

people are concerned is with Southeast Asia-particularly India. At 900 million,

India & # 8217 ; s population is about dual that sub-Saharan Africa, which, with 13.3

million HIV-positive grownups, histories for 60 per centum of the universe & # 8217 ; s entire grownup

infections. The major grounds for such spread in India and following Africa is

the high rate of their population, poorness rate, and other hazard factors all

point to a likely detonation. The figure of HIV infections worldwide doubled

between 1991 and 1996-and that figure is expected to duplicate once more by the twelvemonth

2000. By the bend of the century, about 44 million people will hold fallen

victim to the virus that causes AIDS. The marks of hope do non halt by the

ground of Prevention Programs which they have succeeded in cut downing

HIV-infection rates dramatically among immature work forces in Thailand and immature adult females in

Uganda-two of the states hit hardest by the3 disease. The rate of new

infections have besides dropped aggressively among cheery work forces in the United States,

Australia, Canada, and western Europe. However, many ingredients of the AIDS

epidemic are still mystery. The cause of AIDS remained unsure for several

old ages after its find. Even now, there are inquiries about how expeditiously

the AIDS virus spreads, whether it will kill everyone who gets it, and why the

virus is do lay waste toing to the immune system. It & # 8217 ; s initial spread was in the

United States was among groups that are frowned upon by society-homosexuals and

endovenous ( drug users ) – AIDS has a stigma associated with it. This makes the

disease hard to face rationally. However, people are terrified even by

the word of AIDS. The virus does non acquire transmitted by any organic structure contact neither

through the air. However, the disease does non go through from one individual to another

through the air, by sneezing, on eating utensils, by agitating custodies, or through

organic structure contact in athleticss. There are merely four ways it can be spread: through

injection with a needle contaminated with HIV, which it can go on when drug

nuts portion acerate leafs ; by having a transfusion of contaminated blood ; or-in

the instance of baby with an HIV-positive mother-having the virus transmitted

through the placenta before birth, or the female parent & # 8217 ; s milk after birth. For old ages,

some people to refused to acknowledge AIDS was a job. Although, the disease foremost

received national attending in 1982, when the Centers of Disease Control ( CDC )

noticed an dismaying rate of rare malignant neoplastic disease ( Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma ) in otherwise healthy

cheery work forces. Sound THE FIRST ALARM Three patients examined by Dr.Gottlieb were

really ill. Interestingly, they had several dramatic characteristics in common. All had

unusual infections such as thrush, which is the growing in the pharynx of a fungus

called Candida ; or a rare type of pneumonia caused by a parasite called

Pneumocystis. Besides, they had been infected by less-common viruses, such as

Epstein-Barr virus, which causes glandular fever, or by CMV ( CMV ) .

Taken together, the infections pointed to a serious defect in the patients & # 8217 ;

immune systems. Certain plenty, when Dr. Gottlieb drew a vial blood from each

patient and measured particular sort of immune cell called a T-helper lymph cell,

all three patients & # 8217 ; trials gave the same startling consequence. They were virtually

devoid of T-helper cells, Dr. Gottlieb found. It was clear that they had

earnestly lacking immune systems. The three work forces had something else in common:

they were all homophiles. At that clip it was non clear that the patients & # 8217 ;

homosexualism was related to the unwellness ; a patients & # 8217 ; sexual penchant had

ne’er earlier been considered the finding factor of a medical upset. That

state of affairs was about to alter radically. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AIDS Early

symptoms of HIV, enduring between one and four hebdomads, can mime that of

glandular fever, with symptoms such as puffinesss of the lymph nodes, concern,

febrility, loss of appetency, weight loss, sudating and sore pharynx. Often of these

symptoms are mistaken for the grippe or another viral-type infection, so people may

non even be cognizant that they have been infected with HIV. Even if the patient has

seen a physician, the doctor may disregard the symptoms as a viral infection. In

about all the instances, this phase dissipates due to the healthy immune system & # 8217 ; s

ability to contend the initial infection. Early symptoms may include: *Herpes

shingles ( herpes zosters ) , a tegument roseola that appear on the thorax, venters, and/or back.

*Herpes simplex, a common sexually transmits disease that affects the rectal,

genital, esophageal parts of the organic structure. Painful lesions can break out into

ulceration & # 8217 ; s of the country. In HIV/AIDS patients, this may go a chronic

status. *Thrush, a white coating on the walls of the oral cavity, gums, and on the

lingua, that is caused by a fungus called Candida Albicans. *Excessive bruising

and shed blooding that occurs when a individual develops antibodies which attack the

organic structure & # 8217 ; s platelets-cells which help blood to coagulate. This status can travel

unnoticed, and is frequently non detected until a everyday blood trial is performed.

*Chronic or intermittent diarrhoea, found both in early and late phases of HIV

infection. As the immune system becomes progressively compromised, the organic structure is

non able to contend off more serious infections that a normal integral immune system

could stamp down. Some of these life endangering infection include: *Pneumocystis

pneumonia ( PCP ) , caused by parasite called pneumoncytis carinii. Symptoms

include febrility and respiratory complications that frequently lead to decease. *Kaposi & # 8217 ; s

sarcoma, a status in which tumours of the blood vass develop on the tegument,

in the GI piece of land, oral cavity, lungs, inguen, encephalon liver, and lymph

secretory organs. The promenade, nonpainful lesions normally are a ruddy, brown, or violet colour.

*Tuberculosis ( TB ) , which can happen in both early and late phases of HIV.

Symptoms include dark workout suits, febrility, cough, and weight loss. One of the major

jobs with this facet of the disease is the development of TB strains

resistant to drugs, doing it harder and harder to handle. *Mycobacterium avium

composite, which produces weariness, icinesss, dark workout suits, febrility, weight loss,

diarrhoea, and abdominal hurting. *HIV related lymphoma, conceited lymph secretory organs in the

cervix, groin part, or under the weaponries. This requires radiation and chemotherapy

intervention. *Toxoplasmosis phrenitis, caused by a parasite, which produces an

infection in the encephalon taking to neuro logical damage and ictuss.

Symptoms include concerns, fever, lassitude, confusion, and loss of balance or

coordination. *Cytomegalovirus ( CMV ) infection, a viral infection distributed to

all parts of the organic structure through blood stream and doing infections in the eyes,

lungs, and other variety meats. About 90 per centum of AIDS patients finally develop

CMV. *Crytococcosis. Produced by a fungus found in the dirt. This

causes a encephalon infection. Symptoms include weariness, febrility, sickness and emesis,

altered mental province, memory loss, confusion, and behavioural alterations. *Crytosporidosis,

an infection developed imbibing and contaminated H2O, produces terrible diarrhoea

and weight loss. KAPOSI & # 8217 ; S SARCOMA If the infective disease specializers were

puzzled, several New York skin doctor were even more perplexed. These physicians,

who specialize in tegument diseases, were seeing a figure of patients with an

highly rare sort of malignant neoplastic disease called Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma topographic point on the tegument, farther

scrutiny reveals the presence of the malignant neoplastic disease in an internal organ, such as the

tummy, every bit good. Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma had been a disease of aged work forces in the

Mediterranean beginning ; in New York City it began to look in immature work forces of every

cultural background. It had been known as a slow-growing malignant neoplastic disease that could be

treated successfully ; in these new, immature patients the sarcoma was distributing

fast and damaging internal variety meats. A malignant neoplastic disease of the tegument and internal variety meats does

non sound like it would be related to rare infections of the lung and the encephalon.

But there is a strong connection-the immune system. It is one of the rules

of the scientific discipline of immunology that immune cells are indispensable in protecting the

organic structure from tumour cells. If a little settlement of malignant neoplastic diseases, a tumour, go

established, lymph cells ( portion of the immune system ) are supposed to happen it and

destroy it before it can turn. So Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma in these immature homosexuals work forces could

be seen as timeserving malignant neoplastic disease, taking advantage of the dislocation in the

patients & # 8217 ; defences, merely as the infective beings were making. There was besides

a more concrete ground for the physicians to cognize that the instances of Kaposi & # 8217 ; s

sarcoma in immature homosexuals work forces signaled a breach of these individual & # 8217 ; s protective

mechanisms: Kaposi & # 8217 ; s is comparatively common in patients whose immune systems were

surprised by medical intervention. Patients taking drugs that suppress the immune

system are besides prone to lymphoma, or malignant neoplastic disease of the immune system, Soon this

malignant neoplastic disease started demoing in cheery work forces, excessively. WHY HOMOSEXUALS? Dr. Currant & # 8217 ; s statement

implied two things. One, that there was an infective being underlying the

unusual diseases ( possibly an infective being that attacked the immune

system ) . Two, that the homosexual life style was someway alone. It would be

three old ages before the intuition of an infective agent that attacked immune

cells was verified by the isolation of the AIDS virus. But it was already known

that gay work forces & # 8217 ; s sexual wonts differed from those of the most straight persons. They

found that two other diseases were really common in homosexual work forces and that are

sexually transmitted-hepatitis B and gonorrhoea. The first idea was that the

happening of the Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma in homosexual work forces

might affect sexual transmittal. The work forces with Kaposi & # 8217 ; s reported holding an

norm of 61 different spouses in the old twelvemonth ; the populace clinic

patients and the work forces from private doctors said they had had 25 different

sexual spouses in the past twelvemonth. Both of these Numberss are much higher than the

two to five sexual spouses per twelvemonth common among nonmonogamous ( sexually active

with more than one spouse ) straight persons. The sick work forces reported reaching a much

higher per centum of their spouses in “ cheery baths ” , public topographic points

where cheery work forces can travel for anon. sex. The work forces with Kaposi & # 8217 ; s had met with half

of their spouses in the baths ; the clinic patients had made one-quarter of their

sexual contacts in the baths ; and the healthy private pati

ents averaged merely one

anon. spouse per twelvemonth. Homosexual work forces have higher rates of sexually

transmits diseases than heterosexual work forces and adult females because cheery work forces tend to hold

larger Numberss of different sexual spouses, more frequently prosecute in sneak

( anon. ) sexual activities, and more often have anal intercourse.

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS Any theory of the new disease besides had to account for a

perplexing factor: the assortment of symptoms seen in AIDS patients before they

entered the concluding stage of complete susceptibleness to timeserving infections

and malignant neoplastic diseases. Interviews with AIDS patients revealed many had been really ill for

up to a twelvemonth before they developed their first instance of Pneumocystis pneumonia or

showed their first Kaposi & # 8217 ; s topographic point, both marks of AIDS. One signifier of unwellness that

preceded straight-out AIDS was a province called lymphadenopathy syndrome, or as LAS,

in which the patient had several conceited lymph nodes for three months or more.

These conceited lymph nodes might be in the cervix, in the pharynx, or under the

axillas. Swollen lymph nodes are a mark that the immune system is contending an

infection. Did any patients with conceited lymph nodes get better, bespeaking a

successful battle? Or was the battle ever futile? Several doctors

recruited patients with LAS and examined them every few months to larn the

reply. A more serious status was AIDS-related complex ( ARC ) , a phase of the

unwellness no longer considered individually. It had been defined in 1983 as the

presence of two or more unexplained clinical symptoms of AIDS and at least two

unnatural lab trials for the related marks. Patients with ARC might lose a big

sum of weight, have frequent febrilities, sweat a batch at dark, experience really

fatigued, and suffer untreatable diarrhoea. It seemed that the presence of ARC

signaled that outright AIDS was inevitable. But what stage of the AIDS disease

procedure did ARC represent? The Center for Disease Control ne’er officially

recognized ARC for it & # 8217 ; s coverage intents, but the term was utile in

depicting what appeared to be on the set of AIDS. Better nomenclature has

followed from medical progresss, nevertheless, and the symptoms of what was called ARC

are viewed as merely another of the AIDS-related unwellness instead than as a distinct

phase of the disease. INTRAVENOUS DRUG USERS Heroin nuts have an illegal

wont and are dedicated chiefly to acquiring their following tantrum. Many do non remain in

one topographic point long plenty to be studied. Most of them would instead utilize their money

for drugs than for medical attention, so they do non frequently enter the traditional

medical system. Hence, comparatively, small is known about the medical status

of those who populate the drug civilization. Striking a needle into your vena after

person else has used it is an easy manner to acquire any infective diseases that the

other individual may hold. It is like giving yourself a transfusion of septic

blood. That is why IV drug users have a high rate of hepatitis, a blood disease

that is deadly if left untreated. That is why they become the 2nd group among

whom AIDS quickly spread. Within a twelvemonth of the oncoming of the epidemic, about 20 %

of AIDS patients were found to be IV drug users. But most Four drug users are

straight persons. Many female nuts resort to harlotry to back up their

wont. An septic cocotte can distribute AIDS to any of her clients, and those

work forces can distribute it to any adult females or work forces they subsequently have sex with. Former nuts

can besides convey AIDS to any individual they have a sexual relationship with, if

they acquired the AIDS infection while they are utilizing drugs. From these

cryptic and awful beginnings among cheery work forces and IV drug users, AIDS was

about to demo its versatility by looking in several new population groups.

Indeed, epidemiologists were expecting this development. If the new syndrome

could be spread by sex between two work forces, they asked themselves, might it besides be

transmitted by sex between a adult male and a adult female? And if it could be spread by blood

on contaminated acerate leafs used by diacetylmorphine nuts, could it be spread by blood used

for medical intents, such as during surgery? The replies to both inquiries

turned out to be affirmatory. Between the terminal of 1981 and the terminal 1982, several

new groups were quickly identified who were at greatly increased hazard for

undertaking AIDS. They were as follows: *Women who had sex with work forces who had the

AIDS infection. *Babies born to adult females infected with the AIDS virus.

*Hemophiliacs who injected blood merchandises incorporating a curdling factor. *Surgery

patients who were transfused with contaminated blood. *Newly arrived immigrants

from Haiti and their sexual contacts. In each case, transmittal was either

sexual contact or through having infected blood. It is indispensable to acknowledge

that as each hazard group was identified, it fit one of these forms of

transmittal. There was no group of unexplained AIDS instances that could hold been

spread by insouciant contact, such as being sneezed on by individual with AIDS or eating

nutrient prepared by a individual with AIDS. From May 1981 to the present, all grounds

has confirmed that AIDS is spread merely by intimate contact, non by the

daily, public brushs we all have in our concern and societal lives. But

with the respect of the two ways that AIDS is transmitted, blood and sex, it is

clear the unwellness does non choose peculiar groups to afflict. It does non

affair if you whether you are a adult male or adult females, or what type of life style you

pattern. If you are injected or transfused with contagious blood or take into

your organic structure other contagious bodily fluids, such as vaginal secernments or seeds,

you run a high hazard of acquiring AIDS. Minute sums of these fluids pose really

small menace to conveying the virus, and most nongenital fluids, such as

spit, are presently thought to present no hazard whatsoever of conveying it.

There is, nevertheless, a theoretical hazard involved when any fluid is passed from an

septic individual, though the comparative hazard is highly little. Research is still

being done to turn out these speculation. 80 per centum of babes HIV positive did non

develop AIDS although, their female parent had AIDS. HEMOPHILIACS There are several

diseases in which the blood does non coagulate decently. Those born with these

conditions lack one of the many elements in the blood that are indispensable to halt

hemorrhage. Hemophilia A is an familial curdling upset that afflicts work forces

about entirely. In a individual with terrible haemophilia A, internal hemorrhage or

shed blooding into articulations can take to serious complication, perchance even decease. Even

little cuts coagulum easy. It was individuals with terrible haemophilias A who were at

highest hazard to acquire AIDS. To command their hemorrhage inclination, haemophiliac

inject themselves with a concentrated readying made from the blood of individuals

with normal coagulating ability. This readying, called Factor VIII, is credited

with increasing the life anticipation of haemophiliac in the last two decennaries from

35 to 55 old ages old. Some haemophiliac have a mild upset and usage Factor VIII

merely when they really have a hemorrhage episode. But all hemophiliacs depend on

it at some point. Factor VIII, which was life salvaging for haemophiliac, all of a sudden

turned to be an instrument of decease. The readying is made by pooling blood

collected from 2,000 to 5,000donors, so concentrating it, quick-drying it, and

seting it in phials. Because so many people & # 8217 ; s blood was represented in each phial

of Factor VIII, the possibility existed that at least one giver had AIDS or was

harbouring the AIDS organism-especially because drug users ( until concerns were

raised about septic givers ) frequently sold their blood for hard currency. And because each

hemophiliac uses 20, 30, or 40 phials of Factor VIIII each twelvemonth, there was a good

opportunity that he would meet a contaminated vial Oklahoman or subsequently. IDENTIFYING

THE VIRUS In peculiar, no known infective agent was capable of bring forthing the

specific devastation of the immune system that AIDS causes. Underliing all the

symptoms of AIDS is one primary defect: loss of a polar type of white blood

cells called the T4 assistant lymph cell ( The function of T4 lymphocytes is to assist

other types of immune cells become active and do their occupation. Without the T4

assistant cells, the immune system virtually shuts down. And in some AIDS patients

there was an about complete loss of T4 assistant cells. Viruss are the most

infinitesimal signifier of life. Some people would non even name viruses populating beings.

They are many times smaller than bacteriums, the other cause of human infective

disease. Whereas bacteriums are independent, able to turn and reproduce outside

cells of the being they infect, viruses are parasites. In order to do more

of their sort, viruses must come in the cells of the animal they infect and take

over the cellular machinery. They subvert its productive power by doing more of

their ain sort. The cell dies, but the virus thrives. The virus is an

intracellular parasite because it & # 8217 ; s construction, unlike that of a bacteria, is

excessively fundamental to prolong itself-it must populate within another cell ( Bacteria are

internally complex, incorporating all the equipment necessary for life ) . Viruss

contain merely the familial stuff necessary to propagate themselves and a

tightly wrapped protective coat of proteins. These differences lead to a important

medical differentiation between bacteriums and viruses. Twentieth-century medical

scientific discipline has developed many antibiotics drugs, such as penicillin, to battle

bacterial infections. But viruses are more hard to kill. Because they

reproduce inside of our ain cells, it is hard to happen a drug to halt the

virus from reproducing without harming the host cell. Progress against diseases

caused by viruses-such as little syphilis, epidemic parotitiss, rubeolas, and polio-has semen through

vaccinums, which prevent infections. Latency, means that the infection stays in a

individual & # 8217 ; s organic structure for a piece before it causes clinical unwellness. Because viruses can

prevarication hibernating inside cells, they can hold long latency periods. The latency

periods for AIDS-the clip between exposure to the infection and the first

symptoms-may be every bit long as eight old ages, but it is normally three to five old ages.

In kids the latency is much shorter, and in adult females it may be shorter than in

work forces. Continuity refers to how long the infective agent remains after it starts

the disease. With AIDS it is most likely that the agent stays for the individual & # 8217 ; s

staying life-time. Despite intervention of each timeserving infection, the

immune system remains impaired. As fast as new immune cells are made they are

destroyed. One probationary decision is that a viral ascendant of HIV evolved in

Africa 1000000s of old ages ago and affected monkeys. Gradually it changed to the

signifier of HIV we see today. But this still does non explicate why the virus all of a sudden

started doing human disease in the last one-fourth of the twentieth century. THE

OFFICIAL U.S. DEFINITION OF AIDS There are two factors which determine the

class: T-cell count and history of disease of symptoms. The T-cell

( officially called CD4lymphocyte ) is the vulnerable immune system cell the HIV

virus onslaughts, so uses as a genteelness land. Finally, the T-cells killed by

the virus. As a individual & # 8217 ; s T-cell count lessenings, the hazard of terrible disease, or

“ timeserving unwellness ” , increases. The three functionary degrees of

T-cell counts are: Flat 1: a T-cell count greater than 500cells/ml Flat 2: a

T-cell count between 200-499 cells/ml Level 3: a T-cell count less than 200

cells/ml These classs are based on the lowest T-cell count registered by a

individual. For illustration, person who one time tested at 180 but subsequently received a encouragement

in T-cells from a new peptidase inhibitor would still be considered flat 3. To

find the three official authorities categorizations, symptoms are besides a

factor. For illustration, a patient is in AIDS class 1 if he or she is

asynmptomatic ( no symptoms ) and has a flat 1 T-cell count. An AIDS class 2

patient has a flat 2 T-cell count and at least one of the early phase unwellness

but has non developed a later-stage disease, such as pneumonia or Kaposi & # 8217 ; s

sarcoma. In category 3-full-blown AIDS-the T-cell count has dropped below 200

and the patient has developed a later-stage disease. TREATMENT BREAKTHROUGHS

There have been so many efforts to happen a solution to stop with AIDS but it & # 8217 ; s

excessively complex and we know little of it, therefore it & # 8217 ; s hard to happen a

solution. Although, many experiments have been made for illustration the cocktail.

It & # 8217 ; s a intervention of vaccinums that combine with an AZT. However, this vaccinums

does work for some but for others it does non make anything. Yet, the newest

find is that some people are born with a certain type of cistron that does non

develop AIDS but has the virus. So this individual may go through on the Virus and have it

himself but it will non impact him at all.