Aidss 5 Essay, Research Paper
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Acquired immune lack syndrome, or AIDS, is a late
recognized disease. It is caused by infection with the human
immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) . AIDS is a complicated unwellness that may
affect several stages. It is caused by a virus that can be passed from
individual to individual. AIDS impairs the human organic structure & # 8217 ; s immune system & # 8211 ; the
system is responsible for guarding off disease & # 8211 ; and leaves the victim
susceptible to assorted infections.
AIDS was foremost once and for all identified in the United States in 1981,
when 189 instances were reported to the Centers for Disease Control. Within a
decennary the disease had spread to virtually all populated countries of the universe.
In the United States entirely there are about 65,000 new instances every twelvemonth. The
beginning of the AIDS virus is unsure, but it may hold originated in Central
The first AIDS patients in the Americas and Europe were about
entirely male homophiles. Later patients included those who used
unsterilised endovenous acerate leafs to shoot drugs ; haemophiliac ( individuals with a
blood-clotting upset ) and others who had received blood transfusions ;
females whose male sexual spouses had AIDS ; and the kids of parents
with AIDS. However since 1989, heterosexual sex was found to be the
fastest turning agencies of transmittal of the virus, with 90 per centum of the
new instances coming from heterosexual sex.
How AIDS Is Spread
AIDS is transmitted by direct contact of the blood stream with organic structure
fluids that contains the AIDS virus, peculiarly blood and seeds from an
HIV-infected individual. The virus is normally transmitted through assorted signifiers
of sexual intercourse, the transfusion of virus-contaminated blood, or sharing
in HIV-contaminated endovenous acerate leafs.
The AIDS virus can non come in integral bodily surfaces, such as tegument, and
rapidly perishes outside the human organic structure. AIDS is non spread by insouciant
physical contact or by sneezing. The virus has been found in cryings and
spit, but it is at that place in such low sums that transmission from these organic structure
fluids is highly rare. There are no known instances of AIDS transmittal by
insects or by domestic animate beings. Surveies show that the virus is normally passed
to an baby stopping point to or during bringing. Recently infected female parents can
transmit the virus to their childs through chest milk.
Detection and Treatment
Following infection with HIV, an person may demo no symptoms
at all or may develop little unwellnesss. The period between initial infection
and the development of AIDS is presently changing between six months and
eleven old ages. Normally, when the AIDS virus enters the blood stream. the
organic structure & # 8217 ; s immune system produces antibodies to contend the micro-organisms.
Blood trials can observe these antibodies and hence can demo exposure to
the virus. However, these trials sometimes give incorrect readings and merely
get down giving right information within two hebdomads to three months after
infection. Scientists do non cognize precisely how the AIDS virus amendss the
immune system, they besides do non understand why the natural antibodies
developed to destruct the virus are non effectual.
By 1987 the drug azidothymidine ( AZT ) had proved effectual in
decelerating the reproduction of the HIV virus in worlds, but it is extremely toxic
and can non be taken by many patients. In 1989 research workers determined that
lower doses of AZT would be effectual and less harmful for patients that
have early symptoms of AIDS and for childs with AIDS. Dideoyinsine ( DDI )
was approved in the United States in 1991 for the intervention if HIV infection.
This drug is a utile replacing for AZT and is used in childs and other
patients for who AZT is excessively toxic. In 1992 dideoxycytosine, or DDC, became the
3rd approved drug to handle people infected with the AIDS virus. It was,
nevertheless, approved for usage merely in combination with AZT to handle grownups with
advanced HIV infection. Several other drugs and interventions have been
approved to handle P. carinii pneumonia, Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma, and other AIDS-
related conditions. Several vaccinums against AIDS are being developed and
Attempts at Prevention
Since there is no remedy for AIDS instruction and hazard decrease remain
the most powerful tool in the battle against AIDS. Because there is merely a
few ways of conveying AIDS, the farther spread of AIDS could virtually be
stopped by avoiding behaviours that put a individual at hazard. Education can assist
to accomplish this. There are several ways to cut down the spread of AIDS
through sexual contact. These include practising abstention & # 8211 ; no sex & # 8211 ; or
practising safe sex. Practicing safe sex agencies by holding sex with one
individual in which both people are free of HIV, or utilizing a latex rubber
whenever prosecuting in sex.
In March 1983 the major U.S. blood-banking organisations started
processs to cut down the likeliness of HIV transmittal by inquiring people at
increased hazard of AIDS to halt donating blood. They expanded testing
processs so that people with a history if hazardous behaviour or with symptoms
of AIDS could non give blood.
What Happens After Infection
Most people late infected expression and experience healthy. In some people
the virus may stay inactive, and these people are bearers, they seem
healthy but are still able to infect others. After a few old ages, some people
may develop AIDS-related complex, or ARC. Its symptoms include febrility,
weariness, weight loss, skin roseolas, a fungous infection in the oral cavity known as
thrush, deficiency of opposition to infections, and conceited lymph nodes.
Sometimes the symptoms disappear, but the unwellness normally goes on to go
AIDS. Though it may take every bit much as 20 old ages for the virus to go
AIDS, the mean clip is one to two old ages.
The AIDS virus causes so much harm to the immune system that the
organic structure normally becomes more able to acquire a assortment of infections. Infections
that are harmless to people with normal immune systems but that can be
lethal to those people with the AIDS virus. The mean life chance for an
AIDS victim from the clip that symptoms get down to demo is one to five old ages.
Public consciousness of this disease bit by bit built up as more well-thought-of
victims began to decease: histrion Rock Hudson ( 1985 ) , clothes interior decorator Perry
Ellis ( 1986 ) , choreographer Michael Bennett ( 1987 ) , photographer Robert
Mapplethorpe ( 1989 ) , and Oscar-winning manager Tony Richardson ( 1991 ) .
When hoops ace Magic Johnson announced in 1991 that he had
acquire the AIDS virus, the feeling spread quick that anyone, non merely selected
groups of people, could be at hazard.
The lone manner of halting this disease is by instruction. Everyone most
protect themselves and their spouses, when holding sex, if they do non desire to
acquire HIV. Besides retrieve nil can do sex 100 % safe. The lone manner
to maintain yourself wholly safe from AIDS and other STDs in by non holding