Abstract- dental chair. Results: . Regarding practice

Abstract-

 

Aim: To evaluate the
differences in child behavioural management techniques between male and female
pediatric dentists in India.

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Materials and Method: All
80 participants( 40 male; 40 female) received a questionnaire which sought
information regarding age, sex, aversive and non-aversive management
techniques, use of general anaesthesia and feeling towards an uncooperative
child in a dental chair.

Results: . Regarding
practice of non-aversive techniques, majority of the dentists both male and
female used tell-show-do, and gave presents at the end of each dental
appointment. Hypnosis was the least used non-aversive behavioral management technique.

Papoose
board management technique was commonly used among male dentists than among
female dentists. Most dentists reported of not having parents inside the dental
office during the treatment and if there was restraint, the assistant’s help
was taken. Hand-over-mouth exercise was used by most the of female and male
dentists.  A considerable number of male
dentists reported that they suggest general anesthesia immediately if the child
is uncooperative whereas only a few of female dentists reported to suggest
general anesthesia commonly of the child is uncooperative. There was no significant
difference between the number of male and female dentists who reported to feel
more comfortable while practising aversive management techniques. Only few
dentists tried their best to use non-aversive technique. More than three-fourth
of the dentists reported to feel aggression while the child was uncooperative.

Conclusion: There is no statistical difference between male and female dentists
while using child management. This study concludes that there is equal
potential for both the genders in this field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction-

 

Among
the dental specialities, it is acknowledged that pediatric dentistry has the
most astounding portrayal of females contrasted with other propelled dental
zones and predoctoral programs1-2. More noteworthy female portrayal in
pediatric dentistry has been ascribed to a conventional perspective that
treating a child requires qualities, for example, delicacy and sympathy, or
minding,tenderness, care, patience and affection that ladies may have more than
men3.

 

Research
on contrasts among male and female dental practitioners regarding the
utilisation of management techniques has been published very rarely. An
Australian study of procedures utilised by dental practitioners to oversee
children with behavioural issues revealed that female dental practitioners were
less likely to utlilise aversive strategies4-5.

 

It is
essential to think about the conceivable contrasts in the way female and male
pediatric dental practitioners in India especially in a speciality where there
is equal potential rise to open doors for ladies and men exist. The utilization
of management techniques may affect diversely on dental care benefit. Hence
this study aims to evaluate the difference In child management techniques
between male and female paediatric dentists.

 

 

Materials and methods-

 

All
80 participants(female-40; male-40) received a
questionnaire which asked questions regarding age, gender, behavioral methods
practiced to treat children tell-show-do technique, model demonstration, presents/gifts, hypnosis, papoos board
management technique, hand-over-mouth exercise, voice control exercise, need of
parents presence during treatment; attitude of dentists towards management of
child using general anesthesia, and the dentist’s feeling towards an
uncooperative pediatric patient.

The
questions were designed by the author and included possible variations that
seemed likely to yield information of relevance to the study aims. Data was
statistically analysed using Chi-square test in SPSS online software Version20 and
the level of significance was set at p<0.05.         Result-   Out of 80 participants, 40 were male and 40 were female. Hence, there was no significant gender difference. Regarding practice of non-aversive techniques, majority of the dentists used tell-show-do, and gave presents at the end of each dental appointment. Hypnosis was the least used non-aversive behavioral management technique. Papoose board management technique was commonly used among male dentists than among female dentists (44% and 46%, respectively). Most dentists reported of not having parents inside the dental office during the treatment and if there was restraint, the assistant's help was taken. Hand-over-mouth exercise was used by 52% of female dentists and 52.9% of male dentists. 41.2% of male dentists reported that they suggest general anesthesia immediately if the child is uncooperative whereas only 23% of female dentists reported to suggest general anesthesia commonly of the child is uncooperative. There was no significant difference in the number of male and female dentists who reported to feel more comfortable while practising aversive management techniques. Only few dentists tried their best to use non-aversive technique. 66% of the dentists reported to feel aggression while the child was uncooperative.   Discussion-   The reason behind conducting this study was to obtain statistical data about the management strategies of male and female paediatric dental  practitioners, and to give some understanding into their methods for work. In relation to behaviour management techniques, our findings indicate that most of the dentists practice tell-show-do technique(86%) and modelling/demonstration was more pre-dominant among female dentists. These findings are in concurrence with past reports which state that female dental specialists were more likely to be averse to utilize aversive procedures4-5. However, no distinction was found amongst  male and female dentists concerning voice control technique, which additionally might be seen as an aversive procedure. Papoose board technique was used by 72% of the participants with no distinction between the genders. The pervasiveness of procedures utilized is understandable on the grounds that tell-show-do is the most convenient, mildest and most consistent technique for the dental practitioner to practice. Additionally, this strategy appears to affirm guardians' acknowledgment of procedures, with the mildest method being the most adequate6-8. The finding indicate that only 33% of the respondents enable guardians to be available amid treatment. This is due to the parents become dominant in the place of the dentist. So, if there is restraint, the help of the assistant is taken. Hence this finding is totally in contrast to findings of of Peretz and Zadik, who reported that most guardians communicated the desire to be with their child, and were eager to help the dental specialist if behavioural issues with the child arises9. As to pharmacological techniques, 23.9% female dentists and 42.8% male dentists reported to suggest general anaesthesia if the child is not cooperative. No clarification can be accommodated the finding that essentially more male dentists suggested general anesthesia than female dentists.   The findings of the present study indicate that most dental specialists felt authoritative and aggressive towards the pediatric patient if uncooperative. These discoveries, mirroring the subjective sentiments of the dental practitioners, must be taken into account. Glasrud construed that the dentists' states of mind and measured of productivity will probably be associated with more incessant utilization of physical restraint10. All the children who enter the dental office cant be said that they might cooperate. According to recent studies, most of the children do not cooperate in dental chair, causing an obstruction to delivery of quality dental care11. This gives rise to aggression in a considerable percentage of dentists be it male or female. Additionally, 53% of dental practitioners felt aggressive  towards the paediatric patients. Twice the same number of female dental practitioners admitted to having feel this way. It might be that ladies would more be able to effortlessly concede their emotions than men though men may not recognize this emotion. In any case, this finding indicates that despite the fact that the sentiment aggression is more pervasive among ladies, the strategies utilized were to a similar degree, or to some degree less, aversive than those of men. Hence our findings propose that female dental practitioners utilize similar  management techniques as male dental practitioners while treating pediatric dental patients, in a speciality that shows extraordinary fairness of chances exist between both the genders.   There are several limitations to this study. The first, is the small sample size, which may prompt some bias in analysing the result. The participants  included were specialists and non-specialists, who, obviously, may not represent the general population of dentists in India. The third limitation is the locality of the population that is surveyed. Despite the fact that the setting is absolutely local, the outcomes may bear a worldwide interest, since similar patterns have been accounted for internationally. The future scope of this research is to carry it out globally, more like a comparison study. The sample size would be increased and the questionnaire would be framed accordingly with slight changes.           Conclusion:   From this study, we would like to conclude that there is no statistical difference between male and female dentists while using child management techniques  as there is a conventional perspective that female portrayal is higher than male dentists paediatric dentistry as the child needs to be shown qualities like patience, care, tenderness. This study concludes that there is equal potential for both the genders in this field.                                                                                               Reference-   1. Solomon ES, Hayes MJ. Gender and the transition into practice. J Dent Educ 1995;59:836-840.   2. Waldman HB. Increasing interest in pediatric dentistry? J Dent Child 1992;59:296-300.   3. Clack GB, Head JO. Gender differences in medical graduates' assessment of their personal attributes. Med Educ 1999;33:101- 105.   4.Wright FA, McMurray NE, Giebartowski J. Strategies used by dentists in Victoria, Australia, to manage children with anxiety or behavior problems. J Dent Child 1991;58:223-228.   5. Wright FA, Giebartowski JE, McMurray NE. A national survey of dentists' management of children with anxiety or behavior problems. Aust Dent J 1991;36:378-383.   6. Fields Jr HW, Machen JB, Murphy MG. Acceptability of various behavior management techniques relative to types of dental treatment. Pediatr Dent 1984;6:199-203.   7. Murphy MG, Fields Jr HW, Machen JB. Parental acceptance of pediatric dentistry behavior management techniques. Pediatr Dent 1984;6:193-198.   8. Peretz B, Zadik D. Parents' attitudes toward behavior management techniques during dental treatment. Pediatr Dent 1999;21:201-204.   9. Peretz B, Zadik D. Attitudes of parents toward their presence in the treatment room during dental treatment to their children. J Clin Pediat Dent 1998;23:27-30.   10. Glasrud PH. Dentists' characteristics and child behavior management techniques. J Dent Child 1984;51:337-343.   11. J Chandrapooja, Kathiravan Selvarasu. Behavioural management techniques in Pediatric Clinic- A review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 2016(3); 6:10-15