Prenatal care is one of the most frequently used preventive care
services in United States. Prenatal care has played and can continue to play an
important role in improving maternal and infant health outcomes 35.

Women have identified multiple barriers to obtaining early and adequate
prenatal care which show remarkable similarity across geographic, racial and
socioeconomic groups 12. Clinic staff and providers should develop
a connection with each woman by providing care that meets her physical,
cultural and personal needs 32. Careful study of multiple health
service models and incorporation of effective interventions can assist in
improving maternal and infant outcomes on a local, national and international
level 32. Substance use in pregnancy remains a significant public
health problem, type and degree of the drug used, as well as the point of
exposure, all influence the effects of drug use in pregnancy, these factors
should be taken in to account when developing interventions for prenatal
substance use treatments 26. Regardless of the outcome of the
debates over the future of Medicaid or the Affordable Care Act, millions of
low-income pregnant women that are served by Medicaid will continue to need to
have access to coverage that includes the broad range of pregnancy-related
services that help assure positive maternal
and infant outcomes 43.                                 

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