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Up flow anaerobic stage reactor is used to treat wastewater
into clean water by removing the contaminates (organic waste) as the bacteria
in the wastewater digest this organic material and transfer it into greenhouse
gases (66% methane gas and the remaining contains carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide and others) as illustrated in the following figure.

The constrains of it usage:

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Ø 
Converting most of influent
(wastewater) into CH4 and CH4 is dissolved in the effluent So far no measures
are applied to prevent CH4 escaping to the atmosphere.

Ø  There is little experience with full-scale application to run
the reactor at low temperatures.

Ø  Reduced gases, like H2S, may escape causing odor problems.

Ø  Producing High concentrated  SO4

 

In order to reduce these
constrains and the emission of the green gases, we will try to make an
appropriate design to reduce the hazard while running the reactor.

Design considerations:

UASB Reactors can be constructed
using watertight material like (concrete) and can be designed in a circular or
rectangular way.

 There must be the withdrawal design to the
remained wastes.

The green gases have less density,
rising to the top of the reactor, which is collected in a gas collection dome and
then filtrated using filtration system and the methane gas used to produce
electricity.

Importantly, the are some
parameter must be controlled regularly beside the design to increase the
efficiency so the amount of wastes will be reduced:

1-      pH Value

2-      Temperature

3-      Wastewater flow

4-      Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

 

Other Health and safety Aspects

1-      The operators should take proper health and safety measures
while working in the plant, such as adequate protective clothing.

2-      Nitrogen and phosphorous are not effectively reduced in
anaerobic process, so waste water is stabilized. Due to having dewatering
characteristics, the wastes can be treated in thickening ponds and drying beds to
limit the emission of these gases 

 

 

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