an Information system?
organizations work with large amounts of data. Data are basic values or facts
and are organized in a database. In the information era, all aspects of human
life, individually as well as organizationally, require information. (Susanto,
2013 : 11). Many people think of data as synonymous with information; however,
information actually consists of data that has been organized to help answers
questions and to solve problems. An information system can be defined as the
software that helps organize and analyze data. So, the aim of an information
system is to be capable of data processing and responding to its end user by
providing the answers to all set of queries. Information systems should best
interacts and communicates with the end user In order to provide the accurate
required information (Knight & Silk, 1990).
2.1 Management Information System
Information System (MIS) is a group of connected and harmoniously cooperating
sub-system to achieve one goal-processing data needed by management in the
process of decision making on conducting its function (Susanto, 2013:68). MIS
is the transaction of processing, recording, using electronic data processing
application that focuses on the development of business application development
providing reports for the management in the form of useful information for decision
making (O’Brien & Marakas, 2010:10), and a special category of the
information system for the middle-level management applied to control business
and predict working performances (Laudon & Laudon, 2012:47). MIS is also a
supporting system for decision making applied for tactical and strategic plans,
and is defined as a system providing feedback on organisation activities and
supporting management’s decision making (Bocij et al. 2015:46). Based on the
definitions of MIS, so it is concluded that MIS is a group of information
systems comprising of connected and harmoniously cooperating system to achieve
one goal- providing useful information for the management and feedback on
The Sub-systems in MIS: Sub- systems in MIS are as follow: (Susanto, 2013:74-95)
1) Executive Information System, is the Information sub-systems in an
organisation for executive needs. This information system is built due to the
executives’ unstructured activities, lack of internal interactions with the company,
more external activities so that an information system is required to store
unstructured data received and to process them to be ready-to-use information
available when needed.
2) Marketing Information System is a group of connected and harmoniously
cooperating sub-systems to achieve one goal-processing data related to
marketing into information needed by management in the process of decision
making on conducting its functions.
3) Production Information System, is a part of MIS and
applied to solve production problems, for instance to schedule production
process, control the supply of product quality control and report production
4) Finance Information System is designed to provide information related to
cash flow to the users in a company. Users are mainly managers using
information to manage their resources.
5) Human Resource Information System is a software for the
data entry, data tracking, and data information needs of the Human Resources, management,
and accounting functions. It is useful for all tracking processes and data gathering.
2.2 Accounting Information System (AIS)
AIS is used for financial activities occurring in every
organization, including selling order process operation system, payroll,
budgeting and organization financial statement reporting. Other function
includes capital investment and public cash flow management (Bocij et al. 2015 ). AIS definition, as stated by experts,
is a sub-system of an information system specifically related to financial
occurrence aspects in business functioning to classify, record, summarize, and
process data to be financial information (Gelinas & Dull, 2012), and Romney
& Paul (2006:28), is the foundation of decision making that is closely
related to internal control on the transactions (Richardson et al. 2014:4.)
Based on the statement of the experts, thus it is concluded that AIS is an
information system which consists of interconnected components, related,
integrated harmoniously in recording process, classification and reporting on
useful information processing in decision making by management in order to
achieve organisation goals.
2.1 Human Resource Information System
2.2.2 Overview of Alumni Information system
Alumni systems are web-based information systems which are
made by an academic institution to keep up relations with its students after
they graduate. Institutions utilize the system to gather graduate information
and sort out outreach exercises. These systems gather data about the present
area, work environment, work data and even side interests of the alumni. Within
any particular time period, all of these complex components are related in more
or less stable way with at least some other components (Thierauf 1984). So a
well developed and interactive system is one which provides best and useful
information to the managers at all levels. Below are some core concepts of an
alumni information system:
about the University
membership in the site
money for the university
2.2.3 Traditional Alumni Systems
Prior to the internet revolution, institutions had limited
ways to engage their former students. Communications were through postal mail,
letters or magazines and since the alumni are likely to be geographically
scattered in search of their own careers, the institutions ‘efforts to reach
alumni was affected by publication and mailing costs. Most communication were informative
in nature and not interactive. Alumni interest and participation in university
news or its affairs was usually higher in individuals who were stationed within
a geographic proximity to the university, or in people who se family or friends
still study at the university.
Following the internet revolution, though official alumni
systems were put in place, most of them were an add-on to university websites
and not a lot of alumni would get involved with it. These early alumni systems
suffered from sever al drawbacks. The focus of early alumni systems was mostly
for collecting university funds and due it its rudimentary structure offered
little to no channels for interactive communication. In addition, the number of
alumni actually participating or retaining university relations was only a
fraction of the total alumni population due to limited access or technological
means to use alumni systems.
Currently the existing system of managing the alumni is
manual in nature, college people wants to maintain the information about the
students who have passed from the college but it gets very complex doing it.
The challenges faced by current alumni systems are:
organize and enhance the stature of the application to make management less
tedious and time consuming.
transition from a manual based management approach to an automated information
disseminate information across alumni through an online communication system.
collect useful data related to alumni from social networks and financial
keep privacy and security a top priority for this system.